Namecoin mining calculator - SHA-256 ⛏️ | minerstat


Discussion about Primecoin and its infra. Primecoin is a very innovative cryptocurrency, being the 1st non Hash-Cash PoW crypto, naturally scarce (not artificially), with very fast confirmations (1min), elastic readjusting reward & a useful mining (byproducts are primes). Primecoin is sustainable (miners are guaranteed to have revenues), and decentralized (ASIC/FPGA are not particularly advantaged). Sidechain for decentralized data applications (e.g. Storj) currently in development.

It Is Currently About Twice As Profitable To Mine Namecoins As It Is To Mine Bitcoins FYI

If you will take a look at this set of numbers:
You will notice that it is currently only 1.39% as difficult to mine namecoins as it is to mine bitcoins.
And if you will look here: (Which is the only BTC/NMC exchange as far as I know)
You will see that namecoins are selling for about 0.025 BTC ... so not quite twice as profitable, but almost!
I believe it is because of the impending BTC/NMC Merged Mining activity that is being discussed... (In a few months, namecoin difficulty might mirror that of bitcoin difficulty, and that is currently what sets the price).
submitted by HighBeamHater to BitcoinMining [link] [comments]

It is currently about twice as profitable to mine namecoins as it is to mine bitcoins (xpost from r/BitcoinMining)

It is currently about twice as profitable to mine namecoins as it is to mine bitcoins (xpost from BitcoinMining) submitted by HighBeamHater to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Three suggestions for better boundaries between Monero and Tari

I write this as a multi-year Monero contributor to the subreddit, the CCS, and minor commits to both the CLI and GUI. However, my Reddit account is newish since I regularly delete my Reddit account every six months or so out of privacy concerns, so let my words in this post act as proof of my grasp of Monero and our community's values.
I have been increasingly confused by how intermingled the goals of Monero have become with Tari. Naturally, I could care less if someone wants to merge-mine with Monero. But last week we had dEBRUYNE, longtime excellent mod of this subreddit, break the subreddit's own rules to announce Tari's testnet. So naturally it feels like the Monero community is being invited to align itself with Tari, both alongside Tari's development and its eventual goals. Yet I don't feel like the Monero community is fully aware of how this conflation has the potential to degrade the purity of our community, so that's why I am writing this post today.
On the one hand you have Monero, perhaps the only pure cryptocurrency project left in the entire space. Bitcoin development has declined to a crawl. Yes, regular commits to its code happen all the time, but fundamentally they have become a traceable surveillance coin, and make no major efforts to change this. Greg Maxwell's Confidential Transactions are just sitting there on the shelf, waiting to be implemented. It's sad, really.
Thankfully, there is us. There is Monero. We have all of the benefits of Bitcoin in that we were fairly launched (no premine, founder's share, etc), are decentralized, PoW, and open source. Further our culture reflects the culture of Bitcoin's origins. There is no price talk in Monero. No memes. (Bitcoin's subreddit is overwhelmed with price memes, a harbinger of a dying coin.) Indeed, Monero's community is first passionate about the technology inside it. Some of the most upvoted posts in this sub are actual gd pull requests. So wonderful. I think back to how painfully long it took us to complete the GUI. So many of us were so focused on getting the CLI right that the GUI was delayed for (I think) almost two years.
There are precious few coins like that these days. Namecoin is a wonderful exception. Jeremy Rand's recent presentation on how Namecoin has been implented in the Tor-browser is perhaps the most exciting news in cryptoland all year. Unlike 95% of the burning crypto dumpster fire, people may soon actually use Namecoin, typing something like Monero.bit instead of a long difficult aasldkfasdlkfjadlkfj.onion address.
And then you have everybody else. 95% of the crypto garbage out there is fundamentally useless if not a straight up scam. Most of the stuff falls into 2 different camps of crap: (Crap 1) useless slick coins with massive marketing budgets, and (Crap 2) reskinned forks. 95% of the garbage out there cares first and foremost about how it appears on the surface, because: the first goal for most cryptos is not making something useful, it's making money. You can have a coin like Dash that "innovates" a PoW by stringing a bunch of hash functions together to make it's X11 algo, but since the wallet software itself impresses people, they don't care. Who cares if there is fundamental collision potential in X11 that could break the coin in a single block? Everything looks sliiick.
In short, you can tell if a cryptocurrency is healthy or not if its first goal is making money or making something useful.
Thankfully Tari does not seem to be as bad as 95% of the stuff out there. A cursory glance at their repo makes it seem like Fluffypony found talented devs who know their stuff. Further, I think the idea of merge-mining alongside Monero is quite smart. I am a huge fan of Tevador and hyc and the work they did on RandomX, so anything that champions their creation is welcome to me! My hope is we have dozens of merge-mined RandomX coins in the coming decades. Our hash rate will only increase, and the security of our chain will improve. Furthermore, I think Fluffypony himself is a guy with a lot of integrity, so I actually feel a degree of trust towards Tari that I wouldn't naturally feel.
The issue is Tari's goals. I say this dispassionately: I am uncertain if Tari's central goal is to make something useful or to make money. Here's an article in Blockchain News announcing Tari. In it, they describe what Tari's software will hopefully do:
in our digital world, these restrictions are unduly limiting for both businesses and consumers, making it costly, difficult, or impossible for digital assets to be resold or transferred,” the announcement stated. “For businesses, this means missing out on the tens of billions of dollars generated each year from secondary resale and trading of the digital goods they issue. For consumers, this means never having true ownership of their digital assets, despite having earned or paid for them.”
Sounds ok. Who wouldn't want the ability to trade scarce digital assets with programmed rules? I certainly would. However, farther down the page you have this:
... those involved with the project include John Pleasants, the former CEO of Ticketmaster and the venture firms Redpoint, Trinity Ventures, Canaan Partners, Slow Ventures, Aspect Ventures, DRW Ventures, Blockchain Capital, Pantera, and Multicoin Capital.
Here is where things get a little hairy, and why I am nervous about the pump-culture of crypto leaking into the tech-culture of Monero. Redpoint is a backer of the scammy gambling website Draft Kings. Blockchain Capital is a backer of Coinbase and Ripple. Pantera put up some of the cash that made ZCash happen. I don't know about you, but it makes me squirm a bit to see Tari's logo alongside ZCash and Ripple.
Naturally, the terms of their VC investments are somewhere in black and white, yet there is nothing anywhere on the Tari website about the emission schedule of the coin. In fact, unlike most VC backed crypto out there, Tari doesn't even list their investors. They used to list it in their FAQ as seen on, but have since removed it.
Monero is one of the most hopeful things in the world right now, and it has this special status for me because it cares first and foremost about the technology it is innovating. Decentralized private open-sourced cash. It's an incredible wonderful future that we're all making together. Nothing like Monero has ever existed. But it is more fragile than people realize. It can be slowly killed. This community can eventually become like Bitcoin, stuck in price-memes, if the culture gets sucked away from technology and into profit making.
Is it possible for Tari to accept VC money and be solely focused on the technology of a product? Theoretically, yes. But it's not easy. I've had to work with a few small Silicon Valley companies who also accepted VC cash, and returns to their shareholders were a constant source of pressure on them. Will it be for Tari? Monero needed many years to be awkward and small in order to strengthen itself to be the sizable functional coin it is today. Does Tari have this same patience, or will the VCs need payouts sooner than that? If Fluffypony's main goal in Tari is to help people trade digital assets then why didn't he simply launch Tari like Monero, free and open source (FOSS)? Namecoin is FOSS and merge-mined; it has no VC backers.
As a worst-case scenario, how long will it be before Tari is "given back to the community", as so many VC-inspired coins have done? Dead code repos all over the corners of cryptoland, discarded after the venture capital firms dumped their premine and took off. There are a lot of unanswered questions here.
In closing, I have three suggestions:
  1. Fluffypony should publish the emission schedule as soon as he can, so Tari’s fans can know if there is a premine/founders-share/etc. And perhaps be transparent about how their venture capital investors are being compensated.
  2. People here should think critically before they get involved Tari. It has a different ethos than Monero.
  3. Despite the Fluffypony connection, Rule #4 should be enforced, disallowing posts promoting merge-mined coins like Tari from this forum. If Tari is allowed in this forum, we need our moderators to be honest about whether or not they are investors in Tari and have a conflict of interest. That said, most mods are anonymous, so it's actually impossible to enforce this disclosure. So I guess just enforce Rule #4.
submitted by KierkegaardsGhost to Monero [link] [comments]

Why Bitcoin is Different

If you’re new to the Bitcoin space, the last few months have been pretty crazy. There have been some steep climbs and heart-stopping drops making for a roller coaster of emotion that’s not easily controlled. The price action is both thrilling and at times, painful, so it’s easy to lose sight of what you’re investing in. All the coins seem to be running together, so what’s the difference? How is one coin to be distinguished from another? And more importantly, how is an investor to know what the long term value of a coin will be?
In this article, I’m going to make the case for what makes Bitcoin different, how Bitcoin is a system that, despite all the cloning, has yet to be truly replicated.

Real Innovation

To really understand the value proposition of Bitcoin, it helps to look at a bit of history. It’s tempting to think that the newest ICO or altcoin is the one that will finally “improve” Bitcoin and fix all of its problems and that Bitcoin will be relegated to the dustbin of history due to its lack of some “feature”. Indeed, nearly every altcoin, ICO or hardfork thinks that they’re being innovative in some fundamental way. What’s missed is that the biggest innovation has already happened.
Decentralized digital scarcity is the real innovation and Bitcoin was the first, and, as this article will make clear, continues to be the only such coin. All the other so-called innovations such as faster confirmation times, changing to proof-of-whatever, Turing completeness, different signature algorithm, different transaction ordering method and even privacy, are really tiny variations on the giant innovation that is Bitcoin.
It’s important to remember here that alternatives to Bitcoin have been proposed since 2011 and none of them have even come close to displacing Bitcoin in terms of price, usage or security. IxCoin was a clone of Bitcoin created in 2011 with larger block rewards and a premine (large number of coins sent to the creator). Tenebrix was an altcoin created in 2011 that tried to add GPU resistance and again had a large premine. Solidcoin was another altcoin created in 2011 with faster block times and again, a premine. About the only ones that survived (and not living out a zombie existence) out of that early altcoin era are Namecoin and Litecoin, which distinguished themselves by NOT having a premine.
ICOs are also not new. Mastercoin did an ICO in 2013 with, you guessed it, a premine, and raised over 5000 BTC at the time and had to rebrand themselves to Omni because the ecosystem around it was so anemic. Factom did an ICO in 2015 and raised over 2000 BTC and had to raise multiple rounds of additional financing because they ran out of money. In other words, all these “exciting” new tokens have generally done very poorly and didn’t actually provide much utility.
Altcoins and ICOs have tried many different “features” and most have not been useful or adopted. So what gives? Why does Bitcoin seem to have a special place in the ecosystem? Why is Bitcoin different? We explore two unique aspects that make Bitcoin different than everything else: the network effect and decentralization.

The Network Effect

Because Bitcoin has the largest network and gains from the network effect, other coins essentially are playing a giant game of catch-up. Bitcoin is the 7-day week and every other altcoin is a slight variation (Let’s have 4-day weeks! Let’s make the day 18 hours! Let’s rename the days to something different! Let’s vary week lengths according to the whims of a central authority!) Needless to say, these types of “innovations” are, at best, minor and are generally not adopted. This is because the network effect of Bitcoin grows over time and the people using the network optimize toward the standards of the network, locking more and more people in.
As the network grows, what we see is that subtle, unseen benefits accrue to each norm. What may, on the surface seem inefficient actually has second and third order effects that benefit the people conforming to the norm. For example, a car does not fly or go on water because the car has been optimized for use on solid ground. The lack of extra features makes the car more useful since it’s easier to park (smaller size than a theoretical boat/caplane hybrid), cheaper to maintain and get fuel for, etc.
In addition, these norms have withstood the test of time and have proven their resilience in ways that are not obvious. You would not want to be the first person to fly in a caplane hybrid, for example, because you wouldn’t know how safe such a vehicle is. Something that’s been around has proven its relative security. Bitcoin, in a sense, has the world’s richest bug bounty to reveal any security flaws. As a result, Bitcoin has proven its security with the only thing that can really test it: time. Every other coin is much younger and/or has proven to be less secure.
Indeed, the dubious nature of many of these “features” become obvious over time. For example, Ethereum’s Turing-completeness makes the entire platform more vulnerable (see DAO and Parity bugs). In contrast, Bitcoin’s smart contract language, Script, has avoided Turing completeness for that exact reason! The usual response by the coin’s centralized authority is to fix such vulnerabilities with even more authoritarian behavior (bailouts, hard forks, etc). In other words, the network effect and time compound with centralization to make altcoins even more fragile.
Bitcoin has the largest network and that means that Bitcoin grows in utility simply from having the most users. It’s a lot easier to get accessories for a popular phone than an unpopular one, for example. The ecosystem around Bitcoin makes getting and keeping Bitcoin much easier than say, your altcoin or ICO of the week.


The other main property of Bitcoin that no other coin has is decentralization. By decentralized, I mean that Bitcoin does not have a single point of failure or choke point. Every other coin has a founder or a company that created their coin and they have the most influence over the coin. A hard fork (a backwards incompatible change) that’s forced on the user, for example, is an indication that the coin is pretty centralized.
Centralized coins have the “advantage” of being able to change things quickly in response to market demand. Centralization is certainly a good thing for businesses as they are often trying to make a profit by providing some good or service to their customers. A centralized business can better respond to market demand and change what they sell for better profits.
For money, however, centralization is a bad thing. First, one of the main value propositions for a store of value is in being something that doesn’t change qualitatively (aka immutability). A store of value requires that its qualities stay the same or get better over time. A change that undermines its qualities (e.g. inflation of supply, decreasing of acceptance, change of security) drastically changes the utility of money as a store of value.
Second, centralization of currency has a tendency to change the rules, often to catastrophic effect. Indeed, 20th century economics is the story of central banks slowly degrading fiat money’s store of value utility. The average fiat currency has a lifespan of 27 years for this reason, despite the backing of powerful entities like governments and near universal usage within an entire country as a medium of exchange. “Features”, ability to react quickly and usage simply do not matter nearly as much to the survival of a currency as scarcity and immutability.
Every cryptocurrency and ICO other than Bitcoin is centralized. For an ICO, this is obvious. The entity that issues the ICO and creates the token is the centralized party. They issued the coin and thus can change the token’s usage, alter the coin’s incentives or issue additional tokens. They can also refuse to accept certain tokens for their good or service.
Altcoins have the same problem, though not in such an obvious way. Usually the creator is the de facto dictator for the coin and can do the same things that a government can. Taxes (dev tax, storage tax, etc), inflation, picking winners and losers (DAO, proof-of-X change, etc) are often decided by the creators. As a holder of an altcoin, you have to trust not just the current leader, but all future leaders of the coin to not confiscate, tax away or inflate away your coins. In other words, altcoins and ICOs are not qualitatively different than fiat. In altcoin and ICO-land, you are not sovereign over your own coins!
This is particularly acute in the biggest “competitor” to Bitcoin: Ethereum. By any measure, Ethereum is centrally controlled. Ethereum has had at least 5 hard forks where users were forced to upgrade. They’ve bailed out bad decision making with the DAO. They are now even talking about a new storage tax. The centralized control was shown early in their large premine.
Bitcoin is different. One of the greatest things that Satoshi did was disappear. In the early days of Bitcoin, Satoshi controlled a lot of what was developed. By disappearing, we’ve now got a situation where parties that don’t like each other (users of various affiliations) all have some say in how the network is run. Every upgrade is voluntary (i.e. soft forks) and does not force anyone to do anything to keep their Bitcoin. In other words, there’s no single point of failure. Bitcoin has a system where even if a whole group of developers got hit by a bus, there are multiple open source implementations that can continue to offer choices to every user. In Bitcoin, you are sovereign over your own bitcoins.
This is a very good thing as there’s no central authority that can diminish the utility of your coins. That means Bitcoin is actually scarce (instead of theoretically or temporarily scarce), won’t change qualitatively without everyone’s consent and is thus a good store of value.
submitted by PresentType to bitcoindiscreetnessin [link] [comments]

Upcoming Features

We are excited to finally announce our newest upcoming features coming in 2019. This blog provides an overview of each of the new updates to our platform.
Merged Mining
We have been working tirelessly to ensure the development of our main product, adding a feature that no other competitor out there offers – merged mining. For the publishers using Gath3r, this entails higher profitability and hedging against downturns in the crypto markets. For the networks that Gath3r will mine, this means increased hashrate for both, enhancing security and lowering the chance of a 51% attack.
Merged mining is a lesser known facet of crypto mining, entailing the mining of two coins based on the same algorithm, simultaneously.
Perhaps the most know example of this is Bitcoin and Namecoin. In any merged mining process, there has to be a parent chain and an auxiliary chain. In the example above, Bitcoin’s chain would be the parent and Namecoin’s chain would be the auxiliary one.
Additionally, a huge benefit for the visitors of publishers using Gath3r, is that the process of merged mining does not require any additional processing power from the mining units. This means that it will in no way negatively impact or strain the processors of any visitors, only create more profits for the publishers.
Gath3r Blockchain
The Gath3r platform will move to its own blockchain, operating Masternodes on a Proof of Stake system, allowing for staking for GTH coin holders.
Features like web mining will use a web lite chain with a compressed web-lite Proof of Work blockchain node that is locally stored on the browser for very specific purposes only, leaving out much of the heavy data. The rest of the data will be on Masternodes, which host the full blockchain – the web-lite server syncs with the Masternode – Masternodes are mandatory and web-lite chains will not work without them.
With the help of private Masternodes, Gath3r acts as a unifying bond between blockchain ecosystems.
Smart Contracts and Interoperability
Built-in smart contracts permit interactions with other coins, without adding any work to the parent chain. Having two coins mined for the price of one helps miners save up resources while providing the same amounts of hash power to both networks, helping the child chain. It also gives them the ability to earn more for doing the same work, which is always a bonus and a good motivator to get into merged mining. Gath3r is built as a turn-key solution that allows developers to fork or clone an existing blockchain, develop and deploy their own coin or platform. This Smart Contract capability permits the interoperability of block chains through Gath3r and Private Masternodes. These Smart Contracts can be deployed directly from a GUI and can trigger cross network transactions and tasks based on pre-defined conditions. This will enable the technical scaling of the network to build Enterprise DApps on the Gath3r chain.
Enterprise Sales
Gath3r will integrate a one stop shop, turn-key solution for all crypto related issuance needs of companies. This will give businesses and developers the option to create and launch/fork their product/service on the GTH chain payable in USD. The chain launch, development and mining (since the coin would be merged mined with GTH, and GTH would be mined by websites and applications) are all covered under the service.
The Gath3r Foundation
Another important update to be presented will be The Gath3r Foundation. As an independent entity, part of the capital raised during the token sale will be allocated to the Gath3r Foundation. The main purpose of the foundation will be to allocate grants to promising projects or developers who wish to build on the Gath3r blockchain. Gath3r’s holding company will be independent of the foundation and will have no control over it. This will be exerted by a board made of third party shareholders, as well as some of the Gath3r founders, to ensure fairness and transparency.
Our team is continuously working on new technical updates such as this, which we will announce in the coming weeks, so stay tuned to our social channels to be the first to learn about them!
submitted by Gath3r_Web_Miner to Gath3r_WebMiner [link] [comments]

Here is what is currently HAPPENING!

If you missed any of the drama, here is what actually happened so far in the past few days
An altcoin which was created at 1st Aug was listed 2 days ago in the korean exchanges and as any new altcoin it was pumped by them and everyone got too excited and followed them ...
This resulted in a rapid increase in the mining profitability for the other chain after it adjusted the difficulty yesterday ... and miners started to jump in ...
That's what happened so far ... here is what is going to happen in the following days : hash power is far greater than the current difficulty ... as a result, about 36 new blocks are made / hour ... that is far more profitable than the bitcoin's mining ... until the next difficulty kicks in ( expected within 2 days at the current rate ), at this point the difficulty will adjust upwards exponentially resulting in a less profitable chain compared to the bitcoin ... miners will start to jump back to the btc chain leaving the other chain in a frozen state .. that actually happened before with namecoin
Here is a tweet from charlie lee confirming it
tl;dr miners only care about profitability
submitted by antonesamy to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Function X: A Concept Paper introducing the f(x) ecosystem, a universal decentralized internet powered by blockchain technology and smart devices

Function X: A Concept Paper introducing the f(x) ecosystem, a universal decentralized internet powered by blockchain technology and smart devices


This is a Concept Paper written to introduce the Function X Ecosystem, which includes the XPhone. It also addresses the relationship between the XPOS and Function X.
Pundi X has always been a community-driven project. We have lived by the mission of making sure the community comes first and we are constantly learning from discussions and interactions on social media and in real-life meetings.
As with all discussions, there is always background noise but we have found gems in these community discussions. One such example is a question which we found constantly lingering at the back of our mind, “Has blockchain changed the world as the Internet did in the ’90s, and the automobile in the ‘20s?”. Many might argue that it has, given the rise of so many blockchain projects with vast potential in different dimensions (like ours, if we may add). But the question remains, “can blockchain ever become what the Internet, as we know it today, has to the world?”
Function X, a universal decentralized internet which is powered by blockchain technology and smart devices.
Over the past few months, in the process of implementing and deploying the XPOS solution, we believe we found the answer to the question. A nimble development team was set up to bring the answer to life. We discovered that it is indeed possible to bring blockchain to the world of telephony, data transmission, storage and other industries; a world far beyond financial transactions and transfers.
This is supported by end-user smart devices functioning as blockchain nodes. These devices include the XPOS and XPhone developed by Pundi X and will also include many other hardware devices manufactured by other original equipment manufacturers.
The vision we want to achieve for f(x) is to create a fully autonomous and decentralized network that does not rely on any individual, organization or structure.
Due to the nature of the many new concepts introduced within this Concept Paper, we have included a Q&A after each segment to facilitate your understanding. We will continuously update this paper to reflect the progress we’re making.

Function X: The Internet was just the beginning

The advent of the Internet has revolutionized the world. It created a communications layer so robust that it has resulted in TCP/IP becoming the network standard.
The Internet also created a wealth of information so disruptive that a company like Amazon threatened to wipe out all the traditional brick-and-mortar bookstores. These bookstores were forced to either adapt or perish. The same applies to the news publishing sector: the offerings of Google and Facebook have caused the near extinction of traditional newspapers.
The digitalization of the world with the Internet has enabled tech behemoths like Apple, Amazon, Google and Facebook to dominate and rule over traditional companies. The grip of these tech giants is so extensive that it makes you wonder if the choices you make are truly your own or influenced by the data they have on you as a user.
We see the blockchain revolution happening in three phases. The first was how Bitcoin showed the world what digital currency is. The second refers to how Ethereum has provided a platform to build decentralized assets easily. The clearest use case of that has come in the form of the thousands of altcoins seen today that we all are familiar with. The third phase is what many blockchain companies are trying to do now: 1) to bring the performance of blockchain to a whole new level (transaction speed, throughput, sharding, etc.) and 2) to change the course of traditional industries and platforms—including the Internet and user dynamics.
Public blockchains allow trustless transactions. If everything can be transacted on the blockchain in a decentralized manner, the information will flow more efficiently than traditional offerings, without the interception of intermediators. It will level the playing field and prevent data monopolization thus allowing small innovators to develop and flourish by leveraging the resources and data shared on the blockchain.

The Blockchain revolution will be the biggest digital revolution

In order to displace an incumbent technology with something new, we believe the change and improvement which the new technology has to bring will have to be at least a tenfold improvement on all aspects including speed, transparency, scalability and governance (consensus). We are excited to say that the time for this 10-times change is here. It’s time to take it up 10x with Function X.
Function X or f(x) is an ecosystem built entirely on and for the blockchain. Everything in f(x) (including the application source code, transmission protocol and hardware) is completely decentralized and secure. Every bit and byte in f(x) is part of the blockchain.
What we have developed is not just a public chain. It is a total decentralized solution. It consists of five core components: Function X Operating System (OS); Function X distributed ledger (Blockchain); Function X IPFS; FXTP Protocol and Function X Decentralized Docker. All five components serve a single purpose which is to decentralize all services, apps, websites, communications and, most importantly, data.
The purpose of Function X OS is to allow smart hardware and IoTs to harness the upside and potential utility of the decentralization approach. We have built an in-house solution for how mobile phones can leverage Function X OS in the form of the XPhone. Other companies can also employ the Function X OS and further customize it for their own smart devices. Every smart device in the Function X ecosystem can be a node and each will have its own address and private key, uniquely linked to their node names. The OS is based on the Android OS 9.0, therefore benefiting from backward compatibility with Android apps. The Function X OS supports Android apps and Google services (referred to as the traditional mode), as well as the newly developed decentralized services (referred to as the blockchain mode). Other XPhone features powered by the Function X OS will be elaborated on in the following sections.
Using the Function X Ecosystem (namely Function X FXTP), the transmission of data runs on a complex exchange of public and private key data and encryption but never through a centralized intermediary. Hence it guarantees communication without interception and gives users direct access to the data shared by others. Any information that is sent or transacted over the Function X Blockchain will also be recorded on the chain and fully protected by encryption so the ownesender has control over data sharing. And that is how a decentralized system for communications works.
For developers and users transitioning to the Function X platform, it will be a relatively seamless process. We have intentionally designed the process of creating and publishing new decentralized applications (DApps) on Function X to be easy, such that the knowledge and experience from developing and using Android will be transferable. With that in mind, a single line of code in most traditional apps can be modified, and developers can have their transmission protocol moved from the traditional HTTP mode (centralized) to a decentralized mode, thus making the transmission “ownerless” because data can transmit through the network of nodes without being blocked by third parties. How services can be ported easily or built from scratch as DApps will also be explained in the following sections, employing technologies in the Function X ecosystem (namely Function X IPFS, FXTP Protocol and Decentralized Docker).

f(x) Chain

f(x) chain is a set of consensus algorithms in the form of a distributed ledger, as part of the Function X ecosystem. The blockchain is the building block of our distributed ledger that stores and verifies transactions including financials, payments, communications (phone calls, file transfers, storage), services (DApps) and more.
Will Function X launch a mainnet?
Yes. The f(x) chain is a blockchain hence there will be a mainnet.
When will the testnet be launched?
Q2 2019 (projected).
When will the mainnet be launched?
Q3 2019 (projected).
How is the Function X blockchain designed?
The f(x) chain is designed based on the philosophy that any blockchain should be able to address real-life market demand of a constantly growing peer-to-peer network. It is a blockchain with high throughput achieved with a combination of decentralized hardware support (XPOS, XPhone, etc.) and open-source software toolkit enhancements.
What are the physical devices that will be connected to the Function X blockchain?
In due course, the XPOS OS will be replaced by the f(x) OS. On the other hand, the XPhone was designed with full f(x) OS integration in mind, from the ground up. After the f(x) OS onboarding, and with adequate stability testings and improvements, XPOS and XPhone will then be connected to the f(x) Chain.
What are the different elements of a block?
Anything that is transmittable over the distributed network can be stored in the block, including but not limited to phone call records, websites, data packets, source code, etc. It is worth noting that throughout these processes, all data is encrypted and only the owner of the private key has the right to decide how the data should be shared, stored, decrypted or even destroyed.
Which consensus mechanism is used?
Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT).
What are the other implementations of Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance (PBFT)?
Flight systems that require very low latency. For example, SpaceX’s flight system, Dragon, uses PBFT design philosophy. [Appendix]
How do you create a much faster public chain?
We believe in achieving higher speed, thus hardware and software configurations matter. If your hardware is limited in numbers or processing power, this will limit the transaction speed which may pose security risks. The Ethereum network consists of about 25,000 nodes spread across the globe now, just two years after it was launched. Meanwhile, the Bitcoin network currently has around 7,000 nodes verifying the network. As for Pundi X, with the deployment plan (by us and our partners) for XPOS, XPhone and potentially other smart devices, we anticipate that we will be able to surpass the number of Bitcoin and Ethereum nodes within 1 to 2 years. There are also plans for a very competitive software implementation of our public blockchain, the details for which we will be sharing in the near future.

f(x) OS

The f(x) OS is an Android-modified operating system that is also blockchain-compatible. You can switch seamlessly between the blockchain and the traditional mode. In the blockchain mode, every bit and byte is fully decentralized including your calls, messages, browsers and apps. When in traditional mode, the f(x) OS supports all Android features.
Android is the most open and advanced operating system for smart hardware with over 2 billion monthly active users. Using Android also fits into our philosophy of being an OS/software designer and letting third-party hardware makers produce the hardware for the Function X Ecosystem.
What kind of open source will it be?
This has not been finalized, but the options we are currently considering are Apache or GNU GPLv3.
What kind of hardware will it work on?
The f(x) OS works on ARM architecture, hence it works on most smartphones, tablet computers, smart TVs, Android Auto and smartwatches in the market.
Will you build a new browser?
We are currently using a modified version of the Google Chrome browser. The browser supports both HTTP and FXTP, which means that apart from distributed FXTP contents, users can view traditional contents, such as
What is the Node Name System (NNS)?
A NNS is a distributed version of the traditional Domain Name System. A NNS allows every piece of Function X hardware, including the XPhone, to have a unique identity. This identity will be the unique identifier and can be called anything with digits and numbers, such as ‘JohnDoe2018’ or ‘AliceBob’. More on NNS in the following sections.
Will a third-party device running the f(x) OS be automatically connected to the f(x) blockchain?
Yes, third-party devices will be connected to the f(x) blockchain automatically.

f(x) FXTP

A transmission protocol defines the rules to allow information to be sent via a network. On the Internet, HTTP is a transmission protocol that governs how information such as website contents can be sent, received and displayed. FXTP is a transmission protocol for the decentralized network.
FXTP is different from HTTP because it is an end-to-end transmission whereby your data can be sent, received and displayed based on a consensus mechanism rather than a client-server based decision-making mechanism. In HTTP, the server (which is controlled by an entity) decides how and if the data is sent (or even monitored), whereas in FXTP, the data is sent out and propagates to the destination based on consensus.
HTTP functions as a request–response protocol in the client-server computing model. A web browser, for example, may be the client and an application running on a computer hosting a website may be the server. FXTP functions as a propagation protocol via a consensus model. A node that propagates the protocol and its packet content is both a “client” and a “server”, hence whether a packet reaches a destination is not determined by any intermediate party and this makes it more secure.

f(x) IPFS

IPFS is a protocol and network designed to store data in a distributed system. A person who wants to retrieve a file will call an identifier (hash) of the file, IPFS then combs through the other nodes and supplies the person with the file.
The file is stored on the IPFS network. If you run your own node, your file would be stored only on your node and available for the world to download. If someone else downloads it and seeds it, then the file will be stored on both your node the node of the individual who downloaded it (similar to BitTorrent).
IPFS is decentralized and more secure, which allows faster file and data transfer.

f(x) DDocker

Docker is computer program designed to make it easier to create, deploy, and run applications. Containers allow a developer to package up an application including libraries, and ship it all out as a package.
As the name suggests, Decentralized Docker is an open platform for developers to build, ship and run distributed applications. Developers will be able to store, deploy and run their codes remote in different locations and the codes are secure in a decentralized way.


Beyond crypto: First true blockchain phone that is secured and decentralized to the core
XPhone is the world’s first blockchain phone which is designed with innovative features that are not found on other smartphones.
Powered by Function X, an ecosystem built entirely on and for the blockchain, XPhone runs on a new transmission protocol for the blockchain age. The innovation significantly expands the use of blockchain technology beyond financial transfers.
Unlike traditional phones which require a centralized service provider, XPhone runs independently without the need for that. Users can route phone calls and messages via blockchain nodes without the need for phone numbers.
Once the XPhone is registered on the network, for e.g., by a user named Pitt, if someone wants to access Pitt’s publicly shared data or content, that user can just enter FXTP://xxx.Pitt. This is similar to what we do for the traditional https:// protocol.
Whether Pitt is sharing photos, data, files or a website, they can be accessed through this path. And if Pitt’s friends would like to contact him, they can call, text or email his XPhone simply by entering “call.pitt”, “message.pitt”, or “mail.pitt”.
The transmission of data runs on a complex exchange of public and private key data with encryption. It can guarantee communication without interception and gives users direct access to the data shared by others. Any information that is sent or transacted over the Function X Blockchain will also be recorded on the chain.
Toggle between now and the future
Blockchain-based calling and messaging can be toggled on and off on the phone operating system which is built on Android 9.0. XPhone users can enjoy all the blockchain has to offer, as well as the traditional functionalities of an Android smartphone.
We’ll be sharing more about the availability of the XPhone and further applications of Function X in the near future.


DApps for mass adoption
So far the use of decentralized applications has been disappointing. But what if there was a straightforward way to bring popular, existing apps into a decentralized environment, without rebuilding everything? Until now, much of what we call peer-to-peer or ‘decentralized’ services continue to be built on centralized networks. We set out to change that with Function X; to disperse content now stored in the hands of the few, and to evolve services currently controlled by central parties.
Use Cases: Sharing economy
As seen from our ride-hailing DApp example that was demonstrated in New York back in November 2018, moving towards true decentralization empowers the providers of services and not the intermediaries. In the same way, the XPhone returns power to users over how their data is being shared and with whom. Function X will empower content creators to determine how their work is being displayed and used.
Use Cases: Free naming
One of the earliest alternative cryptocurrencies, Namecoin, wanted to use a blockchain to provide a name registration system, where users can register their names to create a unique identity. It is similar to the DNS system mapping to IP addresses. With the Node Name System (NNS) it is now possible to do this on the blockchain.
NNS is a distributed version of the traditional Domain Name System. A NNS allows every piece of Function X hardware, including the XPhone, to have a unique identifier that can be named anything with digits and numbers, such as ‘JohnDoe2018’ or ‘AliceBob’.
Use Cases: Mobile data currency
According to a study, mobile operator data revenues are estimated at over $600 billion USD by 2020, equivalent to $50 billion USD per month [appendix]. Assuming users are able to use services such as blockchain calls provided by XPhone (or other phones using Function X) the savings will be immense and the gain from profit can be passed on to providers such as DApp developers in Function X. In other words, instead of paying hefty bills to a mobile carrier for voice calls, users can pay less by making blockchain calls, and the fees paid are in f(x) coins. More importantly users will have complete privacy over their calls.
Use Cases: Decentralized file storage
Ethereum contracts claim to allow for the development of a decentralized file storage ecosystem, “where individual users can earn small quantities of money by renting out their own hard drives and unused space can be used to further drive down the costs of file storage.” However, they do not necessarily have the hardware to back this up. With the deployment of XPOS, smart hardware nodes and more, Function X is a natural fit for Decentralized File Storage. In fact, it is basically what f(x) IPFS is built for.
These are just four examples of the many use cases purported, and there can, will and should be more practical applications beyond these; we are right in the middle of uncharted territories.


Decentralized and autonomous
The f(x) ecosystem is fully decentralized. It’s designed and built to run autonomously in perpetuity without the reliance or supervision of any individual or organization. To support this autonomous structure, f(x) Coin which is the underlying ‘currency’ within the f(x) ecosystem has to be decentralized in terms of its distribution, allocation, control, circulation and the way it’s being generated.
To get the structure of f(x) properly set up, the founding team will initially act as ‘initiators’ and ‘guardians’ of the ecosystem. The role of the team will be similar to being a gatekeeper to prevent any bad actors or stakeholders playing foul. At the same time, the team will facilitate good players to grow within the ecosystem. Once the f(x) ecosystem is up and running, the role of the founding team will be irrelevant and phased out. The long term intention of the team is to step away, allowing the ecosystem to run and flourish by itself.


In this section, we will explore the utility of the f(x) Coin. f(x) Coin is the native ‘currency’ of the Function X blockchain and ecosystem. All services rendered in the ecosystem will be processed, transacted with, or “fueled” by the f(x) Coin. Some of the proposed use cases include:
  • For service providers: Getting paid by developers, companies and consumers for providing storage nodes, DDocker and improvement of network connections. The role of service providers will be described in greater detail in the rest of the paper.
  • For consumers: Paying for service fees for the DApps, nodes, network resources, storage solutions and other services consumed within the f(x) ecosystem.
  • For developers: Paying for services and resources rendered in the ecosystem such as smart contract creation, file storage (paid to IPFS service provider), code hosting (paid to DDocker service provider), advertisements (paid to other developers) and design works. Developers can also get paid by enterprises or organizations that engaged in the developer’s services.
  • For enterprises or organizations: Paying for services provided by developers and advertisers. Services provided to consumers will be charged and denominated in f(x) Coin.
  • For phone and hardware manufacturers: Paying for further Function X OS customizations. It is worth noting that Pundi X Labs plan to only build a few thousand devices of the XPhone flagship handsets, and leave the subsequent market supply to be filled by third-party manufacturers using our operating system.
  • For financial institutions: receiving payments for financial services rendered in the ecosystem.
  • Applications requiring high throughput.
Hence f(x) Coin can be used as ‘currency’ for the below services,
  • In-app purchases
  • Blockchain calls
  • Smart contract creations
  • Transaction fees
  • Advertisements
  • Hosting fees
  • Borderless/cross-border transactions
We believe f(x) Coin utilization will be invariably higher than other coins in traditional chains due to the breadth of the f(x) ecosystem. This includes storage services and network resources on f(x) that will utilize the f(x) Coin as “fuel” for execution and validation of transactions.
Example 1: A developer creates a ride-hailing DApp called DUber.
DUber developer first uploads the image and data to IPFS (storage) and code to DDocker, respectively. The developer then pays for a decentralized code hosting service provided by the DDocker, and a decentralized file hosting service provided by the IPFS. Please note the storage hosting and code hosting services can be provided by a company, or by a savvy home user with smart nodes connected to the Function X ecosystem. Subsequently, a DUber user pays the developer.
Example 2: User Alice sends an imaginary token called ABCToken to Bob.
ABCToken is created using Function X smart contract. Smart nodes hosted at the home of Charlie help confirms the transaction, Charlie is paid by Alice (or both Alice and Bob).

The flow of f(x) Coin

Four main participants in f(x): Consumer (blue), Developer (blue), Infrastructure (blue), and Financial Service Provider (green)
Broadly speaking, there can be four main participants in the f(x) ecosystem, exhibited by the diagram above:
  • Consumer: Users enjoy the decentralized services available in the f(x) ecosystem
  • Infrastructure Service Provider: Providing infrastructures that make up the f(x) ecosystem such as those provided by mobile carriers, decentralized clouds services.
  • Developer: Building DApp on the f(x) network such as decentralized IT, hospitality and financial services apps.
  • Financial Service Provider: Providing liquidity for the f(x) Coin acting as an exchange.
The f(x) ecosystem’s value proposition:
  • Infrastructure service providers can offer similar services that they already are providing in other markets such as FXTP, DDocker and IPFS, to earn f(x) Coin.
  • Developers can modify their existing Android apps to be compatible with the f(x) OS environment effortlessly, and potentially earn f(x) Coin.
  • Developers, at the same time, also pay for the infrastructure services used for app creation.
  • Consumers immerse in the decentralized app environments and pay for services used in f(x) Coin.
  • Developer and infrastructure service providers can earn rewards in f(x) Coin by providing their services. They can also monetize it through a wide network of financial service providers to earn some profit, should they decide to do so.
Together, the four participants in this ecosystem will create a positive value flow. As the number of service providers grow, the quality of service will be enhanced, subsequently leading to more adoption. Similarly, more consumers means more value is added to the ecosystem by attracting more service providers,and creating f(x) Coin liquidity. Deep liquidity of f(x) Coin will attract more financial service providers to enhance the stability and quality of liquidity. This will attract more service providers to the ecosystem.
Figure: four main participants of the ecosystem The rationale behind f(x) Coin generation is the Proof of Service concept (PoS)
Service providers are crucial in the whole f(x) Ecosystem, the problem of motivation/facilitation has become our priority. We have to align our interests with theirs. Hence, we have set up a Tipping Jar (similar to mining) to motivate and facilitate the existing miners shift to the f(x) Ecosystem and become part of the infrastructure service provider or attract new players into our ecosystem. Income for service provider = Service fee (from payer) + Tipping (from f(x) network generation)
The idea is that the f(x) blockchain will generate a certain amount of f(x) Coin (diminishing annually) per second to different segments of service provider, such as in the 1st year, the f(x) blockchain will generate 3.5 f(x) Coin per second and it will be distributed among the infrastructure service provider through the Proof of Service concept. Every service provider such as infrastructure service providers, developers and financial service providers will receive a ‘certificate’ of Proof of Service in the blockchain after providing the service and redeeming the f(x) Coin.
Example: There are 3 IPFS providers in the market, and the total Tipping Jar for that specific period is 1 million f(x) Coin. Party A contributes 1 TB; Party B contributes 3 TB and Party C contributes 6 TB. So, Party A will earn 1/10 * 1 million = 100k f(x) Coin; Party B will earn 3/10 * 1 million = 300k f(x) Coin. Party C will earn 6/10 * 1 million = 600k f(x) Coin.
Note: The computation method of the distribution of the Tipping Jar might vary due to the differences in the nature of the service, period and party.
Figure: Circulation flow of f(x) Coin
The theory behind the computation.
Blockchain has integrated almost everything, such as storage, scripts, nodes and communication. This requires a large amount of bandwidth and computation resources which affects the transaction speed and concurrency metric.
In order to do achieve the goal of being scalable with high transaction speed, the f(x) blockchain has shifted out all the ‘bulky’ and ‘heavy duty’ functions onto other service providers, such as IPFS, FXTP, etc. We leave alone what blockchain technology does best: Calibration. Thus, the role of the Tipping Jar is to distribute the appropriate tokens to all participants.
Projected f(x) Coin distribution per second in the first year
According to Moore’s Law, the number of transistors in a densely integrated circuit doubles about every 18 -24 months. Thus, the performance of hardware doubles every 18-24 months. Taking into consideration Moore’s Law, Eric Schmidt said if you maintain the same hardware specs, the earnings will be cut in half after 18-24 months. Therefore, the normal Tipping Jar (reward) for an infrastructure service provider will decrease 50% every 18 months. In order to encourage infrastructure service providers to upgrade their hardware, we have set up another iteration and innovation contribution pool (which is worth of 50% of the normal Tipping Jar on the corresponding phase) to encourage the infrastructure service provider to embrace new technology.
According to the Andy-Bill’s law, “What Andy gives, Bill takes away”; software will always nibble away the extra performance of the hardware. The more performance a piece of hardware delivers, the more the software consumes. Thus, the developer will always follow the trend to maintain and provide high-quality service. The Tipping Jar will increase by 50% (based upon the previous quota) every 18 months.
Financial service providers will have to support the liquidation of the whole ecosystem along the journey, the Tipping Jar (FaaS) will increase by 50% by recognizing the contribution and encouraging innovation.
From the 13th year (9th phase), the Tipping Jar will reduce by 50% every 18 months. We are well aware that the “cliff drop” after the 12th year is significant. Hence, we have created a 3year (two-phase) diminishing transition period. The duration of each phase is 18 months. There are 10 phases in total which will last for a total of 15 years.
According to Gartner’s report, the blockchain industry is forecast to reach a market cap of
3.1 trillion USD in 2030. Hence, we believe a Tipping Jar of 15 years will allow the growth of Function X into the “mature life cycle” of the blockchain industry.

f(x) Coin / Token Allocation

Token allocation We believe great blockchain projects attempt to equitably balance the interests of different segments of the community. We hope to motivate and incentivize token holders by allocating a total of 65% of tokens from the Token Generation Event (TGE). Another 20% is allocated to the Ecosystem Genesis Fund for developer partnerships, exchanges and other such related purposes. The remaining 15% will go to engineering, product development and marketing. There will be no public or private sales for f(x) tokens.
NPXS / NPXSXEM is used to make crypto payments as easy as buying bottled water, while f(x) is used for the operation of a decentralized ecosystem and blockchain, consisting of DApps and other services. NPXS / NPXSXEM will continue to have the same functionality and purpose after the migration to the Function X blockchain in the future. Therefore, each token will be expected to assume different fundamental roles and grant different rights to the holders.
65% of allocation for NPXS / NPXSXEM holders is broken down into the following: 15% is used for staking (see below) 45% is used for conversion to f(x) tokens. (see below) 5% is used for extra bonus tasks over 12 months (allocation TBD).
Remarks All NPXS / NPXSXEM tokens that are converted will be removed from the total supply of NPXS / NPXSXEM; Pundi X will not convert company's NPXS for f(x) Tokens. This allocation is designed for NPXS/NPXSXEM long term holders. NPXS / NPXSXEM tokens that are converted will also be entitled to the 15% f(x) Token distribution right after the conversion.


Management of the Ecosystem Genesis Fund (EGF)
The purpose of setting up the Ecosystem Initialization Fund, is to motivate, encourage and facilitate service providers to join and root into the f(x) Ecosystem and, at the same time, to attract seed consumers to enrich and enlarge the f(x) Ecosystem. EIF comes from funds raised and will be used as a bootstrap mechanism to encourage adoption before the Tipping Jar incentives fully kicks in.
The EGF is divided into 5 parts:
  1. Consumer (10%): To attract consumers and enlarge the customer base;
  2. Developer (20%): To encourage developers to create DApps on the f(x) blockchain;
  3. Infrastructure Service Provider (20%): To set up or shift to the f(x) infrastructure;
  4. Financial Service Provider (20%): To create a trading platform for f(x) Coin and increase liquidity; and
  5. Emergency bridge reserve (30%): To facilitate or help the stakeholders in f(x) during extreme market condition
To implement the spirit of decentralization and fairness, the EGF will be managed by a consensus-based committee, called the f(x) Open Market Committee (FOMC).


Time moves fast in the technology world and even faster in the blockchain space. Pundi X’s journey started in October 2017, slightly over a year ago, and we have been operating at a lightning pace ever since, making progress that can only be measured in leaps and bounds. We started as a blockchain payment solution provider and have evolved into a blockchain service provider to make blockchain technology more accessible to the general public, thereby improving your everyday life.
The creation of Function X was driven by the need to create a better suited platform for our blockchain point-of sale network and through that process, the capabilities of Function X have allowed us to extend blockchain usage beyond finance applications like payment solutions and cryptocurrency.
The complete decentralized ecosystem of Function X will change and benefit organizations, developers, governments and most importantly, society as a whole.
The XPhone prototype which we have created is just the start to give everyone a taste of the power of Function X on how you can benefit from a truly decentralized environment. We envision a future where the XPOS, XPhone and other Function X-enabled devices work hand-in-hand to make the decentralized autonomous ecosystem a reality.
You may wonder how are we able to create such an extensive ecosystem within a short span of time? We are fortunate that in today’s open source and sharing economy, we are able to tap onto the already established protocols (such as Consensus algorithm, FXTP, etc), software (like Android, IPFS, PBFT, Dockers, etc.) and hardware (design knowledge from existing experts) which were developed by selfless generous creators. Function X puts together, aggregates and streamlines all the benefits and good of these different elements and make them work better and seamlessly on the blockchain. And we will pay it forward by making Function X as open and as decentralized as possible so that others may also use Function X to create bigger and better projects.
To bring Function X to full fruition, we will continue to operate in a transparent and collaborative way. Our community will continue to be a key pillar for us and be even more vital as we get Function X up and running. As a community member, you will have an early access to the Function X ecosystem through the f(x) token conversion.
We hope you continue to show your support as we are working hard to disrupt the space and re-engineer this decentralized world.


Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance
Byzantine General Problem technical paper
Global mobile data revenues to reach $630 billion by 2020
NPXSXEM token supply
NPXS circulating token supply and strategic purchaser
[total supply might differ from time to time due to token taken out of total supply aka “burn”]
ELC: SpaceX lessons learned (PBFT mentioned)

submitted by crypt0hodl1 to PundiX [link] [comments]

A brief history of the 2013 market peak; why some alts really do die; and what would've happened if you'd given in to FOMO

This piece is a follow-up to my earlier piece, which looked at what would’ve happened if you’d purchased alt-coins shortly after the bottom of the 2013-2015 bear market. A lot of the constructive criticism that I received was that I was too bullish on alt-coins, and that the timing was too convenient. Although it’s fair to say that I am bullish on crypto in general and alt-coins in particular (with several major caveats for both), I agree that it’s important to not just focus on historical analyses where it’s fairly clear that you could have earned money. So, today’s research question is whether you’d still be underwater if you’d bought in to the market at or near the 2013 all-time high. All information cited herein comes from the historical charts available at CoinMarketCap.
TL;DR: This worst-case scenario analysis shows that $300 invested equally across 15 of the 40 coins in existence near the market’s peak in 2013 would be worth only $429.95 today—gains which are entirely attributable to Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ripple. This is basic, but it can be dangerous to buy high. This is especially true of alt-coins, but even the top three coins in our sample saw fairly lackluster results when bought at the top of the market. Finally, nothing in this post should be taken as investment advice. This is only intended as historical analysis. Past performance does not guarantee future returns.
A Brief History of the 2013 Market Peak
According to CoinMarketCap, the 2013 bull market peaked on December 4, 2013, at ~$15.87 billion in market capitalization.* Thereafter, the market crashed dramatically not once, but twice. In the first crash, which occurred between December 5-8, 2013, overall market cap fell by ~39% to ~$9.66 billion. Then, after a brief recovery to ~$13.57 billion on December 10th, the market fell precipitously, to ~$5.7 billion on December 18, 2013. Thus, over the course of only two weeks, from December 4-18, 2013, the market lost ~64% of its value. Although this was by no means the end of the 2013-2015 bear market--which lasted for approximately 17 months and saw an additional decline of ~45% from the December 18, 2013 low--this was the end of the beginning.
What If I Bought Crypto Right as the 2013 Market Peaked?
Generally, the first rule of trading is** that you want to buy low and sell high. As a result of their fear of missing out (“FOMO”), however, many people find themselves accidentally buying high. Today, I’m going to look at what would have happened to someone who bought their crypto right as the market was peaking. Ideally, I would run this experiment from December 4, 2013, but due to the limited data available from CoinMarketCap, I’m forced to choose between November 24th, December 1st, December 8th, and December 15th. Of those dates, I have selected December 1, 2013, because it represents the worst possible scenario for which I have data. On that date, total crypto market cap, which had hit a new high of ~$15.4 billion the day before, swung wildly between a high of ~$14.83 billion and a low of ~$12.18 billion. Unfortunately, it’s unclear exactly when CoinMarketCap’s snapshot was taken. That said, it’s clear that our hypothetical FOMO trader is about to lose his shirt over the next few weeks, so let’s dive into the specifics.
On December 1, 2013, there were 40 coins listed on CoinMarketCap. I won’t list them all here, but of those 40, all but 11 are still listed as active on CoinMarketCap. The truly dead (or “inactive”) coins are BBQCoin (BQC; rank 16), Devcoin (DVC; rank 19), Tickets (TIX; rank 22), Copperlark (CLR; rank 24), StableCoin (SBC; rank 25), Luckycoin (LKY—ironic, I realize; rank 31), Franko (FRK; rank 34), Bytecoin (BTE; rank 35), Junkcoin (JKE—how apt; rank 36), CraftCoin (CRC; rank 39), and Colossuscoin (COL; rank 40).***
Now, since this post is already incredibly long, instead of testing all 40 coins, let’s take a decently-sized sample of five coins each from the top, middle, and bottom of the stack, and look at what happens. For the middle, although the temptation is to take decent alts, let’s fight that and take the group with the highest failure rate: ranks 21-25. So, here’s out pool:
Now, here are how our sample of coins has performed as of when I write this:****
So, if our hypothetical FOMO trader had invested $100 in our top-five sample near the 2013 peak, it would currently be worth $411.80 (the profitable coins) + $3.06 (PPC) + $4.27 (NMC) = $419.13—a 4.19x increase.
Now for the two coins in the middle five that didn’t completely die:
So, if our hypothetical FOMO trader had invested $100 in our middle-five sample near the 2013 peak, it would currently be worth ~$15.19—an ~84.8% loss.
Finally, here are the two coins from the bottom five that didn’t completely die:
So, excluding everything buy Argentum, if our hypothetical FOMO trader had invested $100 in our bottom-five sample near the 2013 peak, it would currently be worth ~$2.96—a ~97% loss. Putting it all together, $300 invested in this sample of 15 coins as close to the peak of the 2013 market as the data will let me get, would be worth $429.95—a disappointing, but not-unexpected ~30.2% increase over five years. That said, I’m honestly somewhat amazed our FOMO trader made anything at all on this basket of coins, considering how many of them failed. In any case, all of his gains came from the top-three coins from 2013: Bitcoin, Litecoin, and Ripple.
What’s the lesson here, what’s the takeaway?***** Most importantly, I think the above analysis shows that it can be very dangerous to buy alt-coins when the market is at or near an all-time high—a conclusion that appears to be true regardless of where the alt is positioned in the market. That said, there are a few caveats: (1) this sample was intentionally bad, in order to reflect a worst-case scenario; (2) even buying the top-three coins at the all-time high didn’t net our FOMO trader particularly large gains when compared to someone who bought these same coins after the crash. Therefore, I think that the most important lesson here is not to buy high in the first place. Investing solely because of FOMO will probably cause you to lose money, unless you have invested equally in a broad range of cryptocurrencies, like the trader in our hypothetical. Even then, however, our FOMO trader probably would have done better investing in an S&P Index fund over the same period.
*This is a correction to my earlier piece, in which I stated that the cryptocurrency market peaked on November 30, 2013, at a total market capitalization of ~$15.2 billion. I made this error due to having failed to narrow the date range of the chart so I could properly zoon in. That said, the exact details of the market peak don’t affect the conclusions from my last piece, which considered trades made after the market had bottomed out.
** …you do not talk about trading. Wait, that’s the wrong rulebook.
*** Since I already typed it out, here’s the list of remaining active coins, in descending order: Bitcoin (BTC), Litecoin (LTC), Ripple (XRP), Peercoin (PPC), Namecoin (NMC), Megacoin (MEC), Feathercoin (FTC), WorldCoin (WDC), Primecoin (XPM), Freicoin (FRC), Novacoin (NVC), Zetacoin (ZET), Infinitecoin (IFC), Terracoin (TRC), Crypto Bullion (CBX), Anoncoin (ANC), Digitalcoin (DGC), GoldCoin (GLD), Yacoin (YAC), Ixcoin (IXC), Fastcoin (FST), BitBar (BTB), Mincoin (MNC), Tagcoin (TAG), FlorinCoin (FLO), I0Coin (I0C), Phoenixcoin (PXC), Argentum (ARG), Elacoin (ELC)
**** I know that we could have sold them sooner, and probably for more money, but let’s just assume that our hypothetical FOMO trader was a founding member of the #hodlgang. ;-)
***** Don’t mess with Maui when he’s on a breakaway! You’re welcome. ;-)
Disclosures: I have previous held Litecoin, and currently hold approximately $140 of Ripple. I do not believe this influenced my analysis in any way. I have never bought or held any of the other coins discussed in this analysis.
Edits: Formatting, typos, minor clarifications.
submitted by ThaneduFife to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Is this true?

This was on bitcoins reddit I hold both coins and just wanted clarification
"If you missed any of the drama, here is what actually happened so far in the past few days An altcoin which was created at 1st Aug was listed 2 days ago in the korean exchanges and as any new altcoin it was pumped by them and everyone got too excited and followed them ... This resulted in a rapid increase in the mining profitability for the other chain after it adjusted the difficulty yesterday ... and miners started to jump in ... That's what happened so far ... here is what is going to happen in the following days : hash power is far greater than the current difficulty ... as a result, about 36 new blocks are made / hour ... that is far more profitable than the bitcoin's mining ... until the next difficulty kicks in ( expected within 2 days at the current rate ), at this point the difficulty will adjust upwards exponentially resulting in a less profitable chain compared to the bitcoin ... miners will start to jump back to the btc chain leaving the other chain in a frozen state .. that actually happened before with namecoin Here is a tweet from charlie lee confirming it tl;dr miners only care about profitability "
submitted by mmohound to btc [link] [comments]

How does blockchain technology inspire the art world

How does blockchain technology inspire the art world
Traditional licensing of digital art is opaque and often relies on some tangible materialization -- limited edition printing, paper certificates, print and signed licensing -- resulting in scarcity, a prerequisite for market value. Scarcity also undermines the digital identity of works, and thus many of the special attributes inherent in digital art, such as ease of global dissemination or the potential to prove the authenticity of digital signatures.Blockchain-based licenses preserve these features of digital art while making it a scarce commodity.
Samuel Miller, a london-based artist, has come up with an imaginative way of explaining how distributed ledgers work. Ten people in the room, if it's recorded on the blockchain, it's like a wizard sitting in the corner of the room, taking down all the notes and recording everything they see and then synchronizing it to everyone.
Mr. Miller, who has long been interested in power relationships and self-governance, said he was initially attracted to bitcoin because of the way it was tied to those themes. Despite a lack of technical help at first, miller seems to have finally found the solution he was looking for. You can trust everything recorded in the blockchain.
Speaking about blockchain's potential to license content, miller concluded: "it can be used to do anything, get rid of lawyers, get around copyright law -- which is obviously very important for artists. It [blockchain] will fully empower artists.
Not only are individuals exploring the technology, but institutions in the art world are also paying attention. Earlier this year, the Austrian museum of modern art (MAK) made headlines when it became the first museum to buy art with bitcoin.
The idea of a decentralized economy on the Internet is certainly interesting, and museums should be involved in such developments and show how they can be integrated into the daily practices of artists and art institutions.
Mr. Ruhli is an artist and co-founder of the blockchain project. Commenting on the existing and growing links between art and blockchain technology, Ruhli said many people and organizations are working on authenticity authentication based on ledger technology.
Ascribe, based in Berlin, serves artists, galleries, and collectors by allowing them to register, transfer, or archive digital art with time-stamped encrypted ownership certificates on their blockchain-based ownership registry.Ascribe is joined by Monegraph, a company co-founded by a professor at New York University and a technical expert that enables artists to take digital assets over the namecoin blockchain.
While it's still early days and encryption 2.0 is still relatively early days, artists who are gaining momentum from blockchain technology are often interested in ways that eliminate middlemen and make better profits.
Art Dip #art #blockchainart #artist #blockchain
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Cryptocurrency Market - The Biggest Trends to watch out for 2018-2025

New market research study provides an analysis and evaluation of the current and prospective profitability, liquidity and financial stability of Global Cryptocurrency Industry.
Cryptocurrency is a digital currency which operates on cryptographic techniques to complete safe transaction. Being decentralized with no governing body/central body involved in verifying transaction, secured protection and producing new currencies are projected to be the major reason for the market growth over the forecast period. Moreover, cryptocurrency’s community which include miners/stakers, developers, service providers, users etc. drive the governance of cryptocurrencies. The positive feedback loop has made the community more homogenous.
Globally, cryptocurreny has been selected as digital payment method for the future financial world. These convenient currencies are completely digital requiring online transaction unlike physical cash. Hustle free transaction and deduction in entire ownership cost are few key features propelling the industry.
Major drivers include authentication, ease of transaction, complete security, faster international transaction are expected to spur the market growth with steady performance. Moreover, the industry has not been confined with government rules, exchange rates, interest rates or international transaction fee, hence, making the currency more convenient for application.
The currencies can also be transferred digitally via devices such as smartphones, since they are completely unrestricted from any centralized bank/authorities. Vendors and consumers prefer virtual money for making payments, henceforth, creating new opportunities for the market growth.
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Tax-free & compliance-free transactions, lesser chances of identity theft & fraud and negligible fee charged for cryptocurreny transaction are few other key elements augmenting the industry growth over the forecast period. Moreover, lack of awareness among the people and stringent rules and regulations for application of robots in various countries is expected to restrain the market growth. The emerging industry is projected to grow over the forecast period with more public awareness and continuous increase of new market players with innovative product/services.
The market has been segmented into type of currency, mining types, and application. The type of currency segment includes Bitcoin, Litecoin, Ethereum, Ripple, and others. Mining type is segregated into solo and pool mining. The application segment includes banking, real estate, stock market and virtual currency. Other application for the market includes retail sector, gaming industry, education, logistics & transportation, BFSI, tourism sector, media and entertainment industry. BFSI is expected to acquire the major share followed by retail sector operating on cryptocurrencies. The cryptocurrency mining hardware includes Central Processing Unit (CPU) mining, Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) mining, Field-Program Gate Array (FPGA) mining, and Application-Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) mining. ASIC mining can calculate 10,000 times faster than conventional CPU mining.
Increasing acceptance and potential growth for this industry have attracted various small vendors globally for competing in the market. Apart from Bitcoin, Litcoin has also gained prominence in the market over last few years, there are plenty of vendors in the market namely as Litecoin, Namecoin, Novacoin, Peercoin, Ripple, Steller, Primecoin, Megacoin, and many others.
Geographically, the market is expended across North America (U.S., Mexico, and Canada), Europe (UK, France, Germany, and rest of Europe), Asia-Pacific (China, Japan, India, Australia, and rest of Asia-Pacific), and MEA (Middle East, Latin America, and Africa). North America region dominates the market owing to the regulations offered by the government. Brazil and Canada are other major regions using cryptocurreny due to rules and regulations
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Key market players include Intel Corporation, Microsoft Corporation, Xilinx, Inc., NVIDIA Corporation, 21 Inc. AlphaPoint Corporation ,, Inc., Advanced Micro Devices, Inc, BTL Group Ltd.(Blockchain Tech), BitGo, BitFury Group , Coinbase UK, Ltd. Coinsecure, Unocoin, Coinbase, Bitstamp Ltd., Zebpay,, Poloniex Inc., Bitfury Group Limited, Global Area Holding Inc., Digital Limited, IBM Corp, are the other niche players.
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Wednesday, May 22nd

Today are:

Bitcoin Pizza Day, celebrated mainly by the cryptocurrency community, takes place on the anniversary of the date that cryptocurrency was used to pay for goods for the first time. On May 18, 2010, Laszlo Hanyecz of Florida posted in the forum, offering 10,000 bitcoins in exchange for some pizza, saying in part, "I'll pay 10,000 bitcoins for a couple of pizzas.. like maybe 2 large ones so I have some left over for the next day." His call was answered, and on May 22, 2010, he posted, "I just want to report that I successfully traded 10,000 bitcoins for pizza." A teenager named Jeremy Sturdivant, who went by "jercos" on the forum, sent Hanyecz two Papa John's pizzas, and received 10,000 bitcoins in return. Sturdivant paid about $25 for the pizza, and the 10,000 bitcoins he received became valued at $41.
The events of the first Bitcoin Pizza Day were monumental because they paved the way for the use of cryptocurrency in the future. Nine months after the transaction, the worth of the bitcoins totaled $10,000, meaning each bitcoin had the value of a dollar. On the five year anniversary, the value of the 10,000 bitcoins had risen to about $2.4 million. At one point in 2017, the value rose to over $100 million. As of September 2018, a bitcoin is valued at about $6,000, meaning the value of the 10,000 bitcoins used to pay for the pizza would be about $60 million.
The history of bitcoin dates to the early 2000s, when attempts were made to create a cryptocurrency, although none were fully developed. In 2008, a paper titled "Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System" was posted online. The following year, bitcoin became the first cryptocurrency. Its software was made available to the public, and it began being mined. Mining is "the process through which new bitcoins are created and transactions are recorded and verified on the blockchain." With Hanyecz's transaction for goods on the first Bitcoin Pizza Day, bitcoin gained a specific monetary value—up to that point it had only been mined. Rival cryptocurrencies, often known as altcoin, soon emerged. They usually have been created to try to improve an aspect of bitcoin. Early altcoins were Litecoin and Namecoin, and there are now over 1,000.
In 2013, bitcoin's value reached $1,000, but then crashed to about $300. It took a few years to recover. Over time, as it could be spent at more places, bitcoin's popularity continued to grow, as did its value. Time will only tell if the value of bitcoin will continue to rise, but on Bitcoin Pizza Day we can all remember the day the first cryptocurrency transaction for goods took place, and how the value of a transaction for two pizzas once rose to over $100 million.

Canadian Immigrants Day celebrates those who have immigrated to the United States from Canada. Canada is one of the most sparsely populated countries in the world, and most of its inhabitants live within a few hundred miles of its border with the United States. The border is 5,525 miles in length (this includes the border with Alaska) and is the longest border in the world that is not patrolled by military forces. Besides sharing a border, Canada and the United States share many cultural similarities.
Most Canadians immigrate to the United States by getting a green card, which they usually have obtained because they have immediate relatives in the country, or because they are sponsored by an employer there. Canadians migrate to the United States more than they do to any other country. In 1960, about ten percent of the US foreign-born population was Canadian. Although this was down to two percent in 2012, about 800,000 Canadian immigrants lived in the United States at that time.
The first wave of Canadian immigrants arrived in the 1860s; they were largely unskilled and came for factory jobs. A second wave arrived between 1900 and 1930, and were pushed by the discrimination they had faced in employment, education, and because of their religion. Immigration to the United States began to decline after this, as the Canadian economy began to grow after World War II. During the last half of the twentieth century, especially after the passage of the North American Free Trade Agreement in 1994, there was a diversification of Canadian immigrants which included students, those looking to reunite with their families, educated professionals, and retirees with wishes to move to a warmer climate.

Harvey Milk Day honors gay rights activist Harvey Milk and also focuses on stopping discrimination against gays and lesbians. Harvey Milk was born in Long Island, New York, on May 22, 1930. He served in the U.S. Navy during the Korean War, and worked at a Wall Street investment firm for a time afterward, living a closeted gay life at the time. In the early 1960s, his political views were conservative, and he campaigned for Barry Goldwater in 1964. Once he got involved in the New York bohemian theater scene, he began befriending a more avante-garde crowd, and his politics began to shift more progressive. He moved to the San Francisco Bay area in 1969, became involved in the gay social scene, and protested against the Vietnam War. After being fired for participating in an antiwar rally, he returned to New York City in 1970.
After some time working in New York theater, he returned to San Francisco in 1972 and opened a camera shop on Castro Street—the epicenter of the gay community. The following year he ran for a seat on the San Francisco Board of Supervisors for the first time, in part because he thought a tax on small businesses was unfair. He did not win a seat but did manage to finish 10th out of 32 contestants. Afterward, he co-founded the Castro Village Association, which supported gay business owners on Castro Street. He started the Castro Street Fair in 1974, and became known as "Mayor of Castro Street."
He once again lost an election for Board of Supervisors in 1975, and ran for the California State Assembly and was not successful in that bid either. In 1977, he worked to broaden his appeal beyond the gay community, by focusing on taxes, housing, and day-care centers for working mothers. In November 1977, Harvey Milk became the first openly gay person elected to California office, and the first openly gay person elected in a major U.S. city. The rise of Harvey Milk reflected the rise of the gay rights movement across the country, and he was at the forefront of it.
During his tenure in office, Milk pushed for visibility of gay people as well as for social equality. He worked to pass a gay rights ordinance—to ban discrimination in housing, employment, and public accommodations. He spent the summer of 1978 working to defeat Proposition 6—also known as The Briggs Initiative—which would have banned gays and lesbians, or anyone supporting gay rights, from teaching or working in public schools in California. It was defeated at the ballot box that November.
On November 27, 1978, Harvey Milk was assassinated by Dan White, a former Board of Supervisors member, who had resigned a few months earlier and wanted to be reinstated. White first killed San Francisco Mayor George Moscone, and then walked across the building and shot Harvey Milk five times. Dianne Feinstein, who was President of the Board of Supervisors at the time, announced to the press what had taken place. Dan White was convicted of voluntary manslaughter instead of murder, in part because his team used the "Twinkie defense". He was released early and committed suicide in 1985.
Harvey Milk's profile continued to rise after his assassination. In 1982, a biography titled The Mayor of Castro Street was released, bringing Milk's attention to a wider audience. This was followed by an Academy Award-winning documentary, The Times of Harvey Milk, in 1984. Many buildings in California were named after Milk. In 2008, another Academy Award-winning film, Milk, was released. Harvey Milk was posthumously given the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Obama in 2009. That same year, Harvey Milk Day was established by the California legislature and signed into law by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger on October 11. California schools commemorate Milk with activities, events, and projects, and equal rights are focused on. The Harvey Milk Foundation organizes events worldwide.

Sherlock Holmes Day celebrates Sherlock Holmes and the author who created him, Arthur Conan Doyle, who was born on today's date in 1859 in Edinburgh, Scotland. At a young age, Doyle became enthralled by stories his mother told him, which was the spark that eventually would lead him to become a writer. He was sent to a Jesuit preparatory school in England at the age of 9. After a few years, he went on to study at Stonyhurst College, and after graduating in 1876, he went on to pursue a medical degree at the University of Edinburgh. There he met Professor Dr. Joseph Bell, who became his mentor, and later became the inspiration and model for Sherlock Holmes.
While in medical school, Doyle wrote the short stories "The Mystery of Sasassa Valley" and "The American's Tale," the latter of which appeared in London Society magazine. He also worked as a ship surgeon on a whaling ship in the Arctic Circle while in school, which inspired him to write Captain of the Pole Star. After becoming a doctor he moved around for a bit, focusing on his practice, but also continued to write. He also left his Catholic faith and became a Spiritualist. Eventually, he gave up being a doctor and focused solely on his writing and his faith.
Sherlock Holmes and his assistant, Watson, were introduced in the novel A Study in Scarlet, which first appeared in Beeton's Christmas Annual in 1887. It was with this novel that Doyle's writing career finally began taking off. Sherlock Holmes, a "consulting detective" who pursued criminals in London, around England, and throughout Europe, has endured as perhaps the most noteworthy detective character of all time. In all, Doyle wrote 60 stories that featured Sherlock Holmes. Some of Doyle's most noteworthy books that include Sherlock Holmes are The Sign of Four, The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, The Memoirs of Sherlock Holmes, and The Hound of the Baskervilles.
In 1893, Doyle tried to kill off Holmes in the short story "The Final Problem," because he wanted to focus more on his writing on Spiritualism. His readers weren't happy—20,000 readers even canceled their subscriptions to Strand Magazine, a magazine which Sherlock Holmes stories often appeared in. Eventually, Doyle was convinced to bring Holmes back. He reintroduced him in 1901 in the novel The Hound of Baskervilles, and then brought him back to life in the story "The Adventure of the Empty House" in 1903. One of the reasons he decided to bring him back was so he could use the profits from the stories to help fund his missionary work. The final twelve Sherlock Holmes stories appeared in the 1928 compilation titled The Casebook of Sherlock Holmes.
Besides his works featuring Sherlock Holmes, Doyle wrote other books such as Beyond the City, The Stark Munro Letters, and A Duet with an Occasional Chorus, as well as a series of works on Spiritualism. He was diagnosed with Angina Pectoris towards the end of his life. On July 7, 1930, Arthur Conan Doyle died in his garden with one hand to his chest and one hand holding a flower. The stories of Sherlock Holmes have continued to have been read, and Sherlock has also lived on in theater and film adaptations of his stories. Today we celebrate both Sherlock Holmes and the author who created him!

Happy Celebrating
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Blowing the lid off the CryptoNote/Bytecoin scam (with the exception of Monero) - Reformatted for Reddit

Original post by rethink-your-strategy on here
This post has been reformatted to share on Reddit. What once was common knowledge, is now gone. You want a quality history lesson? Share this like wildfire.
August 15, 2014, 08:15:37 AM


I'd like to start off by stating categorically that the cryptography presented by CryptoNote is completely, entirely solid. It has been vetted and looked over by fucking clever cryptographers/developers/wizards such as gmaxwell. Monero have had a group of independent mathematicians and cryptographers peer-reviewing the whitepaper (their annotations are here, and one of their reviews is here), and this same group of mathematicians and cryptographers is now reviewing the implementation of the cryptography in the Monero codebase. Many well known Bitcoin developers have already had a cursory look through the code to establish its validity. It is safe to say that, barring more exotic attacks that have to be mitigated over time as they are invented/discovered, and barring a CryptoNote implementation making rash decisions to implement something that reduces the anonymity set, the CryptoNote currencies are all cryptographically unlinkable and untraceable.
Two other things I should mention. I curse a lot when I'm angry (and scams like this make me angry). Second, where used my short date format is day/month/year (smallest to biggest).
If you find this information useful, a little donation would go a long way. Bitcoin address is 1rysLufu4qdVBRDyrf8ZjXy1nM19smTWd.

The Alleged CryptoNote/Bytecoin Story

CryptoNote is a new cryptocurrency protocol. It builds on some of the Bitcoin founding principles, but it adds to them. There are aspects of it that are truly well thought through and, in a sense, quite revolutionary. CryptoNote claim to have started working on their project years ago after Bitcoin's release, and I do not doubt the validity of this claim...clearly there's a lot of work and effort that went into this. The story as Bytecoin and CryptoNote claim it to be is as follows:
They developed the code for the principles expressed in their whitepaper, and in April, 2012, they released Bytecoin. All of the copyright messages in Bytecoin's code are "copyright the CryptoNote Developers", so clearly they are one and the same as the Bytecoin developers. In December 2012, they released their CryptoNote v1 whitepaper. In September 2013, they released their CryptoNote v2 whitepaper. In November 2013, the first piece of the Bytecoin code was first pushed to Github by "amjuarez", with a "Copyright (c) 2013 amjuarez" copyright notice. This was changed to "Copyright (c) 2013 Antonio Juarez" on March 3rd, 2014. By this juncture only the crypto libraries had been pushed up to github. Then, on March 4th, 2014, "amjuarez" pushed the rest of the code up to github, with the README strangely referring to "cybernote", even though the code referred to "Cryptonote". The copyrights all pointed to "the Cryptonote developers", and the "Antonio Juarez" copyright and license file was removed. Within a few days, "DStrange" stumbled across the website when trying to mine on the pool (a pool for the-other-Bytecoin, BTE, not the-new-Bytecoin, BCN), and the rest is history as we know it. By this time Bytecoin had had a little over 80% of its total emission mined.

Immediate Red Flags

The first thing that is a red flag in all of this is that nobody, and I mean no-fucking-body, is a known entity. "Antonio Juarez" is not a known entity, "DStrange" is not a known entity, none of the made up names on the Bytecoin website exist (they've since removed their "team" page, see below), none of the made up names on the CryptoNote website exist (Johannes Meier, Maurice Planck, Max Jameson, Brandon Hawking, Catherine Erwin, Albert Werner, Marec Plíškov). If they're pseudonyms, then say so. If they're real names, then who the fuck are they??? Cryptographers, mathematicians, and computer scientists are well known - they have published papers or at least have commented on articles of interest. Many of them have their own github repos and Twitter feeds, and are a presence in the cryptocurrency community.
The other immediate red flag is that nobody, and I mean no-fucking-body, had heard of Bytecoin. Those that had heard of it thought it was the crummy SHA-256 Bitcoin clone that was a flop in the market. Bytecoin's claim that it had existed "on the deep web" for 2 years was not well received, because not a single vendor, user, miner, drug addict, drug seller, porn broker, fake ID card manufacturer, student who bought a fake ID card to get into bars, libertarian, libertard, cryptographer, Tor developer, Freenet developer, i2p developer, pedophile, or anyone else that is a known person - even just known on the Internet - had ever encountered "Bytecoin" on Tor. Ever. Nobody.

Indisputable Facts

Before I start with some conjecture and educated guesswork, I'd like to focus on an indisputable fact that obliterates any trust in both Bytecoin's and CryptoNote's bullshit story. Note, again, that I do not doubt the efficacy of the mathematics and cryptography behind CryptoNote, nor do I think there are backdoors in the code. What I do know for a fact is that the people behind CryptoNote and Bytecoin have actively deceived the Bitcoin and cryptocurrency community, and that makes them untrustworthy now and in the future. If you believe in the fundamentals in CryptoNote, then you need simply use a CryptoNote-derived cryptocurrency that is demonstrably independent of CryptoNote and Bytecoin's influence. Don't worry, I go into this a little later.
So as discussed, there were these two whitepapers that I linked to earlier. Just in case they try remove them, here is the v1 whitepaper and the v2 whitepaper mirrored on This v1/v2 whitepaper thing has been discussed at length on the Bytecoin forum thread, and the PGP signature on the files has been confirmed as being valid. When you open the respective PDFs you'll notice the valid signatures in them:
signature in the v1 whitepaper
signature in the v2 whitepaper
These are valid Adobe signatures, signed on 15/12/2012 and 17/10/2013 respectively. Here's where it gets interesting. When we inspect this file in Adobe Acrobat we get a little more information on the signature
Notice the bit that says "Signing time is from the clock on the signer's computer"? Now normally you would use a Timestamp Authority (TSA) to validate your system time. There are enough public, free, RFC 3161 compatible TSAs that this is not a difficult thing. CryptoNote chose not do this. But we have no reason to doubt the time on the signature, right guys? crickets
See these references from the v1 whitepaper footnotes? Those two also appear in the v2 whitepaperth. Neither of those two footnotes refer to anything in the main body of the v1 whitepaper's text, they're non-existent (in the v2 whitepaper they are used in text). The problem, though, is that the Bitcointalk post linked in the footnote is not from early 2012 (proof screenshot is authentic:
May 5, 2013. The footnote is referencing a post that did not exist until then. And yet we are to believe that the whitepaper was signed on 12/12/2012! What sort of fucking fools do they take us for?
A little bit of extra digging validates this further. The document properties for both the v1 whitepaper as well as the v2 whitepaper confirms they were made in TeX Live 2013, which did not exist on 12/12/2012. The XMP properties are also quite revealing
XMP properties for the v1 whitepaper
XMP properties for the v2 whitepaper
According to that, the v1 whitepaper PDF was created on 10/04/2014, and the v2 whitepaper was created on 13/03/2014. And yet both of these documents were then modified in the past (when they were signed). Clearly the CryptoNote/Bytecoin developers are so advanced they also have a time machine, right?
Final confirmation that these creation dates are correct are revealed those XMP properties. The properties on both documents confirm that the PDF itself was generated from the LaTeX source using pdfTeX-1.40.14 (the pdf:Producer property). Now pdfTeX is a very old piece of software that isn't updated very often, so the minor version (the .14 part) is important.
pdfTeX 1.40.14 pushed to source repo on Feb 14, 2014
This version of pdfTeX was only pushed to the pdfTeX source repository on February 14, 2014, although it was included in a very early version of TeX Live 2013 (version 2013.20130523-1) that was released on May 23, 2013. The earliest mentions on the Internet of this version of pdfTeX are in two Stack Exchange comments that confirm its general availability at the end of May 2013 (here and here).
The conclusion we draw from this is that the CryptoNote developers, as clever as they were, intentionally deceived everyone into believing that the CryptoNote whitepapers were signed in 2012 and 2013, when the reality is that the v2 whitepaper was created in March, 2014, and the v1 whitepaper haphazardly created a month later by stripping bits out of the v2 whitepaper (accidentally leaving dead footnotes in).
Why would they create this fake v2 whitepaper in the first place? Why not just create a v1 whitepaper, or not even version it at all? The answer is simple: they wanted to lend credence and validity to the Bytecoin "2 years on the darkweb" claim so that everyone involved in CryptoNote and Bytecoin could profit from the 2 year fake mine of 82% of Bytecoin. What they didn't expect is the market to say "no thank you" to their premine scam.

And Now for Some Conjecture

As I mentioned earlier, the Bytecoin "team" page disappeared. I know it exists, because "AtomicDoge" referred to it as saying that one of the Bytecoin developers is a professor at Princeton. I called them out on it, and within a week the page had disappeared. Fucking cowards.
That was the event that triggered my desire to dig deeper and uncover the fuckery. As I discovered more and more oddities, fake accounts, trolling, and outright falsehoods, I wondered how deep the rabbit hole went. My starting point was DStrange. This is the account on Bitcointalk that "discovered" Bytecoin accidentally a mere 6 days after the first working iteration of the code was pushed to Github, purely by chance when mining a nearly dead currency on a tiny and virtually unheard of mining pool. He has subsequently appointed himself the representative of Bytecoin, or something similar. The whole thing is so badly scripted it's worse than a Spanish soap opera...I can't tell who Mr. Gonzales, the chief surgeon, is going to fuck next.
At the same time as DStrange made his "fuck me accidental discovery", another Bitcointalk account flared up to also "accidentally discover this weird thing that has randomly been discovered": Rias. What's interesting about both the "Rias" and "DStrange" accounts are their late 2013 creation date (October 31, 2013, and December 23, 2013, respectively), and yet they lay dormant until suddenly, out of the blue, on January 20th/21st they started posting. If you look at their early posts side by side you can even see the clustering: Rias, DStrange.
At any rate, the DStrange account "discovering" Bytecoin is beyond hilarious, especially with the Rias account chiming in to make the discovery seem natural. Knowing what we unmistakably do about the fake CryptoNote PDF dates lets us see this in a whole new light.
Of course, as has been pointed out before, the Bytecoin website did not exist in its "discovered" form until sometime between November 13, 2013 (when it was last captured as this random picture of a college girl) and February 25, 2014 (when it suddenly had the website on it as "discovered"). This can be confirmed by looking at the captures on Wayback Machine:*/
The CryptoNote website, too, did not exist in its current form until after October 20, 2013, at which time it was still the home of an encrypted message project by Alain Meier, a founding member of the Stanford Bitcoin Group and co-founder of BlockScore. This, too, can be confirmed on Wayback Machine:*/
~It's hard to ascertain whether Alain had anything to do with CryptoNote or Bytecoin. It's certainly conceivable that the whitepaper was put together by him and other members of the Stanford Bitcoin Group, and the timeline fits, given that the group only formed around March 2013. More info on the people in the group can be found on their site, and determining if they played a role is something you can do in your own time.~
Update: Alain Meier posted in this thread, and followed it up with a Tweet, confirming that he has nothing to do with CryptoNote and all the related...stuff.

Batshit Insane

The Bytecoin guys revel in creating and using sockpuppet accounts. Remember that conversation where "Rias" asked who would put v1 on a whitepaper with no v2 out, and AlexGR said "a forward looking individual"? The conversation took place on May 30, and was repeated verbatim by shill accounts on Reddit on August 4 (also, screenshot in case they take it down).
Those two obvious sockpuppet/shill accounts also take delight in bashing Monero in the Monero sub-reddit (here are snippets from WhiteDynomite and cheri0). Literally the only thing these sockpuppets do, day in and day out, is make the Bytecoin sub-reddit look like it's trafficked, and spew angry bullshit all over the Monero sub-reddit. Fucking batshit insane - who the fuck has time for that? Clearly they're pissy that nobody has fallen for their scam. Oh, and did I mention that all of these sockpuppets have a late January/early February creation date? Because that's not fucking obvious at all.
And let's not forget that most recently the sockpuppets claimed that multi-sig is "a new revolutionary technology, it was discovered a short time ago and Bytecoin already implemented it". What the actual fuck. If you think that's bad, you're missing out on the best part of all: the Bytecoin shills claim that Bytecoin is actually Satoshi Nakamoto's work. I'm not fucking kidding you. For your viewing pleasure...I present to you...the Bytecoin Batshit Insane Circus:
Seriously. Not only is this insulting as fuck to Satoshi Nakamoto, but it's insulting as fuck to our intelligence. And yet the fun doesn't stop there, folks! I present to you...the centerpiece of this Bytecoin Batshit Insane Circus exhibit...
Of course! How could we have missed it! The clues were there all along! The CryptoNote/Bytecoin developers are actually aliens! Fuck me on a pogostick, this is the sort of stuff that results in people getting committed to the loony bin.
One last thing: without doing too much language analysis (which is mostly supposition and bullshit), it's easy to see common grammar and spelling fuck ups. My personal favorite is the "Is it true?" question. You can see it in the Bytecoin thread asking if it's Satoshi's second project, in the Monero thread asking if the Monero devs use a botnet to fake demand, and in the Dashcoin thread confirming the donation address (for a coin whose only claim is that they copy Bytecoin perfectly, what the fuck do they need donations for??).

Layer After Layer

One of the things that happened soon after the Bytecoin "big reveal" was a string of forks popping up. The first was Bitmonero on April 18. Fantomcoin was launched May 6. Quazarcoin was launched May 8. HoneyPenny was announced on April 21, although only launched as Boolberry on May 17. duckNote was launched on May 30. MonetaVerde as launched June 17.
Now for some reason unbeknownst to anyone with who isn't a retarded fuckface, the Bytecoin code was pushed up to SourceForge on 08/04/2014 (the "Registered" date is at the bottom of the page). I have no idea why they did this, maybe it's to try and lend credence to their bullshit story (oh hey, look how old Bytecoin is, it's even on Sourceforge!)
Coincidentally, and completely unrelated (hurr durr), Quazarcoin, Fantomcoin, and Monetaverde are all also on Sourceforge. This gives us a frame of reference and a common link between them - it's quite clear that at least these three are run by the same team as CryptoNote. There is further anecdotal evidence that can be gathered by looking at the shill posts in the threads (especially the way the Moneteverda shills praise merge mining, in a way that is nearly fucking indistinguishable from the Bytecoin praise for multi-sig technology).
QuazarCoin is a special case and deserves a little attention. Let's start with OracionSeis, who launched it. He's well known on Bitcointalk for selling in-game currencies. In that same thread you'll notice this gem right at the end from Fullbuster: "Hey,OracionSeis is no longer under my use so please come into this thread! thank you !" Click through to his new link and Fullbuster clarifies: "Hello, I may look new around here but i've sold my first account and created new one and i have an intention to keep the same services running as my first account did." So now that we know that OracionSeis is a fucking bought account, we can look at his actions a little more critically.
On May 7, just when Monero was being taken back by the community (see below), OracionSeis out of the blue decided to take it overelaunch it himself. This included a now-defunct website at, and a since-abandoned Github. The community pushed back hard, true to form, with hard-hitting statements such as "To reiterate, this is not the original devs, and thus not a relaunch. OP, fuck you for trying this. This should warrant a ban." A man after my own heart. OracionSeis caved and decided to rename it to...QuazarCoin, which launched on May 8. To recap: bought account, launched by trying to "relaunch" Monero, got fucked up, renamed it to QuazarCoin. Clearly and undeniably goes in our pile of fuckface coins.
The other three are a little more interesting. Let's start with ~fuckNote~duckNote. It's hard to say if duckNote is a CryptoNote/Bytecoin project. The addition of the HTML based wallet is a one-trick pony, a common thread among most of the CryptoNote/Bytecoin controlled coins, but that could also be the result of a not-entirely-retarded developer. Given the shill posts in the duckNote thread I'm going to flag it as possibly-controlled-by-the-fuckface-brigade.
And now we come to ~HoneyPenny~ ~MoneyPenny~ ~HoneyBerry~ ~Boolean~ Boolberry. This is an interesting one. This was "pre-announced" on April 21, although it was only released with the genesis block on May 17. This puts it fourth in line, after Fantomcoin and Quazarcoin, although fucktarded proponents of the shittily-named currency insist that it was launched on April 21 because of a pre-announcement. Fucking rejects from the Pool of Stupidity, some of them. At any rate, "cryptozoidberg" is the prolific coder that churned out a Keccak-derived PoW (Wild Keccak) in a month, and then proceeded to add completely fucking retarded features like address aliasing that requires you to mine a block to get an address (lulz) and will never cause any issues when "google" or "obama" or "zuckerberg" want their alias back. Namecoin gets around this by forcing you to renew every ~200 - 250 days, and besides, nobody is making payments to microsoft.bit. This aliasing system is another atypical one-trick-pony that the CryptoNote developers push out and claim is monumental and historical and amazing.
There's also the matter of cryptozoidberg's nickname. In the Bytecoin code there's the BYTECOIN_NETWORK identifiert, which according to the comment is "Bender's nightmare" (hurr durr, such funny, 11100111110001011011001210110110 has a 2 in it). Now this may be a little bit of conjecture, yo, but the same comment appears twice in the "epee" contributed library, once in the levin signature, and again in the portable storage signature. The contexts are so disconnected and different that it would be a fucking stretch to imagine that the same person did not write both of these. We can also rule out this being a Bytecoin-specific change, as the "Bender's nightmare" comments exist in the original epee library on githubw (which is completely unused anywhere on the planet except in Bytecoin, most unusual for a library that has any usefulness, and was first committed to github on February 9, 2014).
We know from the copyright that Andrey N. Sabelnikov is the epee author, and we can say with reasonable certainty that he was involved in Bytecoin's creation and is the dev behind Boolberry. Sabelnikov is quite famous - he wrote the Kelihos botnet code and worked at two Russian security firms, Microsoft took him to court for his involvement (accusing him of operating the botnet as well), and then settled with him out of court on the basis of him not running the botnet but just having written the code. Kelihos is a botnet that pumped out online pharmacy spam (you know the fucking annoying "Y-ou Ne3D Vi-4Gra!?" emails? those.) so it's good to see he transitioned from that to a cryptocurrency scam. Regardless of BBR's claim to have "fixed" CryptoNote's privacy (and the fake fight on Bitcointalk between the "Bytecoin devs" and cryptozoidberg), it's clear that the link between them is not transparent. BBR is either the brainchild of a spam botnet author that worked on Bytecoin, or it's the CryptoNote developers trying to have one currency distanced from the rest so that they have a claim for legitimacy. I think it's the second one, and don't want to enter into a fucking debate about it. Make up your own mind.
Which brings us to the oddest story of the bunch: Bitmonero. It's pretty clear, given its early launch date and how unfamiliar anyone was with creating a genesis block or working in completely undocumented code, that thankful_for_today is/was part of the CryptoNote developers. He made a fatal error, though: he thought (just like all the other cryptocurrencies) that being "the dev" made him infallible. Ya know what happened? He tried to force his ideas, the community politely said "fuck you", and Bitmonero was forked into Monero, which is leading the pack of CryptoNote-based coins today. Let me be perfectly fucking clear: it doesn't matter that the Bytecoin/CryptoNote developers know their code and can push stuff out, and it doesn't matter that Sabelnikov can shovel bullshit features into his poorly named cryptocurrency, and it doesn't matter that Monetaverde is "green" and has "merged mining". Nobody working behind these cryptocurrencies is known in the cryptocurrency community, and that alone should be a big fucking red flag. Monero is streets ahead, partly because of the way they're developing the currency, but mostly because the "core devs" or whatever they're called are made up of reasonably well-known people. That there are a bunch of them (6 or 7?) plus a bunch of other people contributing code means that they're sanity checking each other.
And, as we saw, this has fucking infuriated the Bytecoin/CryptoNote developers. They're so angry they waste hours and hours with their Reddit accounts trawling the Monero sub-reddit, for what? Nobody has fallen for their scam, and after my revelation today nobody fucking will. Transparency wins, everything else is bullshit.
As pointed out by canonsburg, when the Bytecoin/CryptoNote people realised they'd lost the fucking game, they took a "scorched earth" approach. If they couldn't have the leading CryptoNote coin...they'd fucking destroy the rest by creating a shit-storm of CryptoNote coins. Not only did they setup a thread with "A complete forking guide to create your own CryptoNote currency", but they even have a dedicated website with a fuckton of JavaScript. Unfortunately this plan hasn't worked for them, because they forgot that nobody gives a fuck, and everyone is going to carry on forking Bitcoin-based coins because of the massive infrastructure and code etc. that works with Bitcoin-based coins.
There are a bunch of other useless CryptoNote coins, by the way: Aeon, Dashcoin, Infinium-8, OneEvilCoin. We saw earlier that Dashcoin is probably another CryptoNote developer driven coin. However, this entire group is not really important enough, nor do they have enough potential, for me to give a single fuck, so make up your own mind. New CryptoNote coins that pop up should be regarded with the utmost caution, given the bullshit capabilities that we've already seen.

All Tied Up in a Bow

I want to cement the relationship between the major CryptoNote shitcoins. I know that my previous section had a lot of conjecture in it, and there's been some insinuation that I'm throwing everyone under the bus because I'm raging against the machine. That's not my style. I'm more of a Katy Perry fan..."you're going to hear me roar". There were some extra links I uncovered during my research, and I lacked the time to add it to this post. Thankfully a little bit of sleep and a can of Monster later have given me the a chance to add this. Let's start with an analysis of the DNS records of the CN coins.
If we look at the whois and DNS records for,,,,,,,, and, we find three common traits, from not-entirely-damming to oh-shiiiiiiit:
  1. There's a lot of commonality with the registrar (NameCheap for almost all of them), the DNS service (HurricaneElectric's Free DNS or NameCheap's DNS), and with the webhost (LibertyVPS,, etc.)
  2. All of the CN domains use WhoisGuard or similar private registration services.
  3. Every single domain, without exception, uses Zoho for email. The only outlier is that uses Namecheap's free email forwarding, but it's safe to disregard this as the emails probably just forward to the CryptoNote developers' email.
The instinct may be to disregard this as a fucking convenient coincidence. But it isn't: Zoho used to be a distant second go Google Apps, but has since fallen hopelessly behind. Everyone uses Google Apps or they just use mail forwarding or whatever. With the rest of the points as well, as far-fetched as the link may seem, it's the combination that is unusual and a dead giveaway of the common thread. Just to demonstrate that I'm not "blowing shit out of proportion" I went and checked the records for a handful of coins launched over the past few months to see what they use. mail: Namecheap email forwarding, hosting: Amazon AWS, open registration through NameCheap mail:, hosting: behind CloudFlare, open registration through Gandi mail: Google Apps, hosting: MODX Cloud, hidden registration (DomainsByProxy) through GoDaddy mail: Namecheap email forwarding, hosting: behind BlackLotus, open registration through NameCheap mail: no MX records, hosting: Google User Content, open registration through Wix mail:, hosting: behind CloudFlare, closed registration (ContactPrivacy) through mail: HostGator, hosting: HostGator, open registration through HostGator
There's no common thread between them. Everyone uses different service providers and different platforms. And none of them use Zoho.
My next check was to inspect the web page source code for these sites to find a further link. If you take a look at the main CSS file linked in the source code for,,,,,,, and, we find a CSS reset snippet at the top. It has a comment at the top that says "/* CSS Reset /", and then where it resets/sets the height it has the comment "/ always display scrollbars */". Now, near as I can find, this is a CSS snipped first published by Jake Rocheleau in an article on WebDesignLedger on October 24, 2012 (although confusingly Google seems to think it appeared on cnippetz first, but checking shows that it was only added to that site at the beginning of 2013). It isn't a very popular CSS reset snippet, it got dumped in a couple of gists on Github, and translated and re-published in an article on a Russian website in November, 2012 (let's not go full-blown conspiritard and assume this links "cryptozoidberg" back to this, he's culpable enough on his own).
It's unusual to the point of being fucking impossible for one site to be using this, let alone a whole string of supposedly unrelated sites. Over the past few years the most popular CSS reset scripts have been Eric Meyer's "Reset CSS", HTML5 Doctor CSS Reset, Yahoo! (YUI 3) Reset CSS, Universal Selector ‘’ Reset, and Normalize.css, none of which contain the "/ CSS Reset /" or "/ always display scrollbars */" comments.
You've got to ask yourself a simple question: at what point does the combination of all of these fucking coincidental, completely unusual elements stop being coincidence and start becoming evidence of a real, tenable link? Is it possible that,,,,,,,, and just happen to use similar registrars/DNS providers/web hosts and exactly the fucking same wildly unpopular email provider? And is it also possible that,,,,,, and just happen to use the same completely unknown, incredibly obscure CSS reset snippet? It's not a conspiracy, it's not a coincidence, it's just another piece of evidence that all of these were spewed out by the same fucking people.

The Conclusion of the Matter

Don't take the last section as any sort of push for Monero. I think it's got potential (certainly much more than the other retarded "anonymous" coins that "developers" are popping out like street children from a cheap ho), and I hold a bit of XMR for shits and giggles, so take that tacit endorsement with a pinch of fucking salt.
The point is this: Bytecoin's 82% premine was definitely the result of a faked blockchain. CryptoNote's whitepaper dates were purposely falsified to back up this bullshit claim. Both Bytecoin and CryptoNote have perpetuated this scam by making up fake website data and all sorts. They further perpetuate it using shill accounts, most notably "DStrange" and "Rias" among others.
They launched a series of cryptocurrencies that should be avoided at all cost: Fantomcoin, Quazarcoin, and Monetaverde. They are likely behind duckNote and Boolberry, but fuck it, it's on your head if you want to deal with scam artists and botnet creators.
They developed amazing technology, and had a pretty decent implementation. They fucked themselves over by being fucking greedy, being utterly retarded, being batshit insane, and trying to create legitimacy where there was none. They lost the minute the community took Monero away from them, and no amount of damage control will save them from their own stupidity.
I expect there to be a fuck-ton of shills posting in this thread (and possibly a few genuine supporters who don't know any better). If you want to discuss or clarify something, cool, let's do that. If you want to have a protracted debate about my conjecture, then fuck off, it's called conjecture for a reason you ignoramus. I don't really give a flying fuck if I got it right or wrong, you're old and ugly enough to make up your own mind.
tl;dr - CryptoNote developers faked dates in whitepapers. Bytecoin faked dates in fake blockchain to facilitate an 82% premine, and CryptoNote backed them up. Bytecoin, Fantomcoin, Quazarcoin, Monetaverde, Dashcoin are all from the same people and should be avoided like the fucking black plague. duckNote and Boolberry are probably from them as well, or are at least just fucking dodgy, and who the fuck cares anyway. Monero would have been fucking dodgy, but the community saved it. Make your own mind up about shit and demand that known people are involved and that there is fucking transparency. End transmission.
Just a reminder that if you found this information useful, a little donation would go a long way. Bitcoin address is 1rysLufu4qdVBRDyrf8ZjXy1nM19smTWd.
submitted by OsrsNeedsF2P to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

A few thoughts - Saturday, June 7, 2014

Today's thoughts are all about altcoins.

Litecoins are not dead

Several people have started to agree with me recently that litecoins aren't dead yet. But I wasn't quite able to give a concrete answer as to why, until a comment reminded me that litecoins are the most widely traded of all the altcoins. BTC-e, for example, doesn't deal in phoenixcoins and ronpaulcoins. Being widely traded is a significant advantage, even if the coin doesn't itself have any advantages.
I'm not sure why ASICs are relevant to the price of altcoins. ASICs are going to be distributed amongst miners just like they were with bitcoins; this just makes the miners fight a losing battle with each other, costing each other money. As long as one person doesn't get all the ASICs, it doesn't have any effect on network security.
A while back, all the speculation was that litecoins would overtake bitcoins once Mt Gox accepted them for trading. In the interim, however, we have several major exchanges trading them. When an exchange wants to expand into altcoins, they don't look towards the trendiest new thing; the first mainstay they adopt is litecoins.
The other advantage litecoins have is that there is a certain amount of "lock-in" with other coins. I've already commented about the concept of technological "lock-in." In this case, you have exchanges like Cryptsy that denominate some altcoins solely in litecoins. I found out that there is a class of altcoins that can only be traded Bitcoins -> Litecoins -> Altcoin. Even if you don't want litecoins, you still have to buy them if you want to play the game with these "penny stock" coins. That keeps their price high because even if merchants do not accept them, they still have utility and "acceptance" by exchanges.
Also, a quick thought to ponder: a lot of the reason why people buy bitcoins is that bubbles crash, things change, and bitcoins are still around. Have litecoins reached the point where people expect them to die, they don't, and therefore they think there must be something to them?

Max Keiser recommends Darkcoins; I do not

Max Keiser put out a tweet trying to sell darkcoins to his followers, saying he thinks they will recover after their recent bug-fueled crash. Remember that Keiser was also the one who said to buy the essentially 98% premined Quarks too, and that failure alone might be reason enough to ignore whatever he says.
I like the idea that when an altcoin has a lot of hype, it's not time to buy it. Darkcoins may have some benefits, but there is so much hype around them that there is almost certainly a bubble there. Don't confuse that with the idea that darkcoins won't have a niche in the future. However, just like bitcoins, there are times when hype gets out of proportion to the advantages the technology has.

Today's altcoin mining report

Altcoin mining profitability is all over the map today. If I had started testing this pool back during the last cycle, it would have been interesting to see if we could deduce any patterns from this data. As you can see in the charts at:
there are about 20 coins that are constantly switching as the most profitable. This may be partially a result of those new coins that have extremely fast difficulty adjustments. The chart isn't as useful without being able to mouse over the bars, but it gets the general point across just seeing all the colors. People obviously do not value most altcoins for their specific features anymore; most of them are just a game. There is one trend that is not all over the place:
The expected payout of scrypt coins is at $1.33/Mh/day now, which is completely opposite the trend of increasing bitcoin prices.

The effects of orphanage

Some altcoins reduce the block confirmation time by making the coin ridiculously easy to mine. There's no advantage to creating an altcoin that has huge numbers of blocks, because then all that happens is that your "confirmed' transaction is more likely to get orphaned. In testing, I was getting 30% orphanage rates on some of these fast coins. Look at what happened last night in the course of a few blocks:
However, I'm still trying to figure out whether orphanage actually reduces the pool's revenue or not. The conclusion I'm coming to is that it only cuts miners' revenue from the expected value if your orphan rate is higher than the average orphan rate of the network. If everyone has 30% of blocks rejected, then the blocks are still being created at the same rate and everyone gets the same amount of money. You only lose money if you have more orphans than everyone else does.
Am I missing something here? If not, then orphanage is only an indicator of a bug or of monetary losses if I have orphaned blocks for long networks like bitcoin, where having another pool finding a block within a second or two is very unlikely.

None of the altcoins has the innovation that bitcoin needs

The only true innovation from any altcoin that would pose a threat to bitcoin is if someone came up with a yet-unknown solution to the 1MB transaction limit, that will be permanent for an indefinite period of time, and released a new coin with it.
Some people mistakenly say that people will switch to altcoins to get around the block size limit, but that isn't the case because the most any altcoin has done to resolve it is to make blocks more frequent, which only raises the limit to some hardcoded value. Raising the limit to some hardcoded value isn't "solving" the problem, it's just putting it off into the future. Don't make a mistake and buy altcoins thinking that some altcoin is going to address that limit, because none has.

Altcoin code is a mess

Altcoins are a mess, when you are trying to compile their code. If you haven't done this with many coin daemons, which most probably haven't, then you probably don't know that almost all altcoins are just clones of bitcoin with some minor changes. This is one of the reasons why bitcoins have such an advantage, because you can't be innovative when you just copy stuff from the bitcoin developers.
What some people don't know is that most altcoins aren't even doing that. There are a few altcoins that have changed little in many years, so instead of incorporating fixes that have been included in bitcoin since then, those coins never upgraded to newer block templates and they don't include the latest features. It also means that bugs that were later fixed are still present in those coins. Some coins, like namecoin, are in horrible shape and for many, it's a matter of time before this code aging causes some sort of security issue to be discovered.

Dogecoins are doomed?

Dogecoins are supposedly doomed. The idea is that the block reward is decreasing too rapidly, and the price of dogecoins needs to rise to avoid a 51% attack. I'm not so sure that the developers of dogecoins will just roll over and die, given how large that community is.
More likely is that if the price stays stable and more block reward decreases occur, they will release a fork to stop the reward decline earlier than expected. That will devalue dogecoins significantly. If the hashrate of dogecoins starts to drop, I would get out. I don't think the network is "doomed," but I do think that the only solution to the problem is to devalue coins, and you obviously don't want to be holding when that is announced.

Negative "interest" rates

Apparently, the speculation now is that negative interest rates are going to spread to the rest of the world, and that banks will start charging an account maintenance fee, along with eliminating interest payments. In that case, what is the purpose of using a bank? I won't be keeping a checking account if that happens. Instead, I'll close my account, buy a safe and store cash in it, using banks only to trade stocks. I don't think I spent a single dollar in actual cash for the past year before this, so this is a technological regression.
What kind of world is this where it is a better idea for me to store wads of cash in a safe instead of putting it in a bank, where they actually take money from me?


submitted by quintin3265 to BitcoinThoughts [link] [comments]

B4U offers Bitcoin Exchange in Kuala Lumpur

One cannot deny the fact that cryptocurrencies are the new future. The world is a live witness that paper money is losing its value and Digital coins are taking over. In this era where internet is the king everything is going digital be it banking, insurance or Currencies.
B4U offers the Buying, Selling and Exchanging of Cryptocurrencies at Affordable Rates
The business tycoons of the world are the biggest advocates of virtual currencies and they are making sure they are investing in it. Elon Musk has almost verified that paper money is on its last legs and is losing value and the founder of Twitter is making sure he is investing a great deal in digital coins.
The Fascination is real. The charisma is real. Common men, middle class men or elites are in digital currencies grip and it’s almost certain that these currencies are going to be the talk of town for a very long time. There are many types of crypto currencies which one can find in the digital market like Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, Namecoin, Peercoin, Dogecoin, Gridcoin, Primecoin, Bitcoin cash to name a few.
The most famous among them are Bitcoin (BTC) they have been the talk of town since their inception in 2009. It’s creator Sotoshi Nakamoto has an ambiguous identity but the coins are very famous. They have gripped the entire nation since their inception and they are soaring high with every passing day.

Save money in the Exchange of Bitcoin at Kuala Lumpur

The value of one BTC is $3,980 but the local exchange will sell you BTC in a much higher price and in case you have few BTC with you and you want to swap them with your local currency which is Ringgit the local exchange will charge you for it via taxes so what’s the way out? You have some digital coins in your pocket and you want to trade them for local currency but what about taxes? How can one evade them? Well there definitely is a way out and that way out is offered by the reputed B4U. They have the Bitcoins ATM machine installed and from there you can business your virtual currency without concerning yourself about taxes. You won’t have to pay much and your BTC will be exchanged too.

B4U offer the best deals for the exchange of Bitcoin in Kuala Lumpur

B4U is reputed to have executed hundreds of successful deals in the buying, selling and exchanging of digital currencies. If you want to buy BTC or any other digital currency that option is available here. If you want to sell or swap your virtual currencies that option too is available here. We have the best deals available for our valued customers and we don’t charge them much. With B4U it’s very easy to be the owner of Digital coins and if you want to disown your coins it’s OK B4U will exchange them in your local currency as well.
The best place to get your BTC Exchanged in Kuala Lumpur
We are well aware what happen in exchanges. When we get to them to buy, sell or exchange our digital coins or tokens they charge us the heavy fee and not just the fee they try to invade a lot in our privacy. These are just some issues, there is one other problem at local BTC exchanges and that is mostly they don’t give us the option of having our crypto currency changed into local Currency but you don’t need to fret. We know of a place where the BTC can be exchanged into Local ringgit without much tax. This place is B4U and we have what you want.
B4U will give you Ringgits for your coins without bothering your with the unnecessary taxes

Exchange your virtual currencies into local currencies

The best thing about B4U is if you have Bitcoins or any other virtual currency in your wallet that can be exchanged into all the other currencies. If you are in need of dollars we can give them to you in barter of your crypto. If you need pounds, rupees or any other currency B4U has that option available and you can avail that by trading your crypto with us. We have vowed to make it all easy for our valued customers so if you want the best deals in virtual currencies you can have them from us.

A Golden chance for investors! Invest in virtual currencies

Things are changing rapidly in today’s era. Things which were the sensation a year ago have been replaced with newer addictions. It seems like yesterday when Facebook was the sensation in social media but now things have changed since Instagram has taken everyone in its grip.
Paper money was once a great deal. We have lived with it all our lives but since the inception of internet things have changed, now its the era of crypto. Cryptocurrency are taking everyone into its storm and it is visibly taking over the paper money. First credit cards mocked the value of paper money now its the crypto. Virtual currencies are the sensation because of one more thing, there is a chance of profit in it. For instance if you buy one bitcoin for now you will get it in $3,980 but months later its value will double or even triple so in case you intend to sell your cryptocurrencies after few months you will earn a huge profit out of it.
There is a reason why the world is going gaga after digital coins, they create the chance of earning huge profit out of them. Bitcoins and Ethereum are clearly taking the lead. Back then when they came into the market they were cheap but now you can’t have them unless you have enough cash with you. You shouldn’t buy the crypto just because everyone else is buying it, you should buy it because they can generate the revenue for you. B4U has the best deals available and if you want to make a profit in cryptocurrencies it’s the right place to come to in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

The ATM Machine will save you a lot of Trouble

Local Exchange are everywhere in Malaysia. The buying, selling and exchanging of crypto currencies are possible at a lot of places but there is a place which has an edge over other exchanges. This place is the ATM machine in B4U.
With the availability of ATM machine in Kuala Lumpur it’s a lot easier for the people of Malaysia to have crypto in their access. While the local exchanges will charge you the heavy fee in the buying and selling of virtual currencies the ATM won’t charge you much. You can have your desired coins from the machine after inserting cash. The machine won’t invade your privacy and the method is pretty quick as well. You get a receipt 20 minutes later after inserting your cash.
In the exchanges usually there is so intense an interrogation that a customer feels offended but when you know that you have all the keys in your own hand that you will just have to fill up some of your info with the cash then there is nothing to worry about.
B4U ATM Machine on google map
Customers like the things which are easy to operate and the ATM machine installed in B4U can be operated by a layman as well.
As we all know it’s the era of digital currencies. Only that one is successful in this age who is investing in the right place. So invest in crypto because it promises a great future.
More Articles about B4U ATM Machine


B4U offers the buying, selling and exchanging of cryptocurrencies at affordable rates. The ATM machine installed in B4U can be used to buy, sell and exchange the virtual currencies. Be in touch with us and secure yourself a great deal.


335A Melawati Urban 1 Lorong Serawak, 53100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Monday to Friday
10:00 am to 6:00 pm
Saturday and Sunday is closed.
submitted by B4U_Wallet_Exchange to btc [link] [comments]

Buying a bitcoin mining farm Profitable In 2020? (Antminer S19 Pro) Is Mining Bitcoin Still Profitable in 2020? How To Trade Bitcoins for Profit - On Your Phone Easiest way to mine Bitcoin, Litecoin, PPCoin, Namecoin, Feathercoin, and Dogecoin Namecoin is Useful, but Bitcoin Buys Guns!  PNN Live #60

Find out what your expected return is depending on your hash rate and electricity cost. Find out if it's profitable to mine Bitcoin, Ethereum, Litecoin, DASH or Monero. Do you think you've got what it takes to join the tough world of cryptocurrency mining? Namecoin (Symbol: ℕ or NMC) is a cryptocurrency that is mined with bitcoin software as bonus. It is based on the code of bitcoin and uses the same proof-of-work algorithm. Like bitcoin, it is limited to 21 million coins. Unlike bitcoin, Namecoin can store data within its own blockchain transaction database. Total Namecoin Paid: 4,552Last Block Found: 465,412: Avg. Time To Find Block: 0 Hours 0 Minutes: Time Since Last Block: 8292 Hours 57 Minutes: Current Round Shares: 105887133188 * Current Round Luck: 0.00% *Equivalent difficulty 1 shares How can the NameCoin (NMC) mining profitability be calculated You can use this tool and input all the parameters like hash rate of your mining hardware rig, hourly power consumption of it, pool commission percentage (the pool which you are going to join in the mining), difficulty of the NameCoin (NMC) network, amount of blocks rewarded, price of NameCoin (NMC) and once you click calculate it Namecoin (NMC) Namecoin was the first fork of Bitcoin. Namecoin is used to securely record and transfer arbitrary names (keys) and attach a value (data) to the names (up to 520 bytes). Blocks are generated every 10 minutes on average. 12.5 NMC are the block generation reward and 0,002 NMC are the fee rewards on average. V-Cash (XVC)

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Buying a bitcoin mining farm Profitable In 2020? (Antminer S19 Pro)

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