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Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given public key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

submitted by almkglor to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

In the last 24 hours, Bitcoin's Nakamoto Coefficient (a measure of decentralization) has dropped to TWO. Bitmain and F2Pool now control 62% of the hashrate

Is anyone else watching the mining pool charts? It seems like the large pools are slowly killing off the smaller pools. BTC.com and AntPool are both Bitmain:
https://btc.com/stats/pool?pool_mode=day
From the Bitcoin wiki:
Note that in the reality of bitcoin mining today, more than 6 confirmations are required. (60 confirmations to have <1% odds of succeeding against an entity with 40% hash power). See Section 11 of the (https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf bitcoin whitepaper) for the AttackerSuccessProbability formula.
submitted by Qwahzi to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Watch the only bitcoin sponsored esports team compete in CS:GO for prize pool of $10k! LIVE in 30minutes!

Watch the only bitcoin sponsored esports team compete in CS:GO for prize pool of $10k! LIVE in 30minutes! submitted by iamautonomous to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

[ Bitcoin ] Technical: Taproot: Why Activate?

Topic originally posted in Bitcoin by almkglor [link]
This is a follow-up on https://old.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/hqzp14/technical_the_path_to_taproot_activation/
Taproot! Everybody wants it!! But... you might ask yourself: sure, everybody else wants it, but why would I, sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, want it? Surely I can be better than everybody else because I swapped XXX fiat for Bitcoin unlike all those nocoiners?
And it is important for you to know the reasons why you, o sovereign Bitcoiner, would want Taproot activated. After all, your nodes (or the nodes your wallets use, which if you are SPV, you hopefully can pester to your wallet vendoimplementor about) need to be upgraded in order for Taproot activation to actually succeed instead of becoming a hot sticky mess.
First, let's consider some principles of Bitcoin.
I'm sure most of us here would agree that the above are very important principles of Bitcoin and that these are principles we would not be willing to remove. If anything, we would want those principles strengthened (especially the last one, financial privacy, which current Bitcoin is only sporadically strong with: you can get privacy, it just requires effort to do so).
So, how does Taproot affect those principles?

Taproot and Your /Coins

Most HODLers probably HODL their coins in singlesig addresses. Sadly, switching to Taproot would do very little for you (it gives a mild discount at spend time, at the cost of a mild increase in fee at receive time (paid by whoever sends to you, so if it's a self-send from a P2PKH or bech32 address, you pay for this); mostly a wash).
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash, so the Taproot output spends 12 bytes more; spending from a P2WPKH requires revealing a 32-byte public key later, which is not needed with Taproot, and Taproot signatures are about 9 bytes smaller than P2WPKH signatures, but the 32 bytes plus 9 bytes is divided by 4 because of the witness discount, so it saves about 11 bytes; mostly a wash, it increases blockweight by about 1 virtual byte, 4 weight for each Taproot-output-input, compared to P2WPKH-output-input).
However, as your HODLings grow in value, you might start wondering if multisignature k-of-n setups might be better for the security of your savings. And it is in multisignature that Taproot starts to give benefits!
Taproot switches to using Schnorr signing scheme. Schnorr makes key aggregation -- constructing a single public key from multiple public keys -- almost as trivial as adding numbers together. "Almost" because it involves some fairly advanced math instead of simple boring number adding, but hey when was the last time you added up your grocery list prices by hand huh?
With current P2SH and P2WSH multisignature schemes, if you have a 2-of-3 setup, then to spend, you need to provide two different signatures from two different public keys. With Taproot, you can create, using special moon math, a single public key that represents your 2-of-3 setup. Then you just put two of your devices together, have them communicate to each other (this can be done airgapped, in theory, by sending QR codes: the software to do this is not even being built yet, but that's because Taproot hasn't activated yet!), and they will make a single signature to authorize any spend from your 2-of-3 address. That's 73 witness bytes -- 18.25 virtual bytes -- of signatures you save!
And if you decide that your current setup with 1-of-1 P2PKH / P2WPKH addresses is just fine as-is: well, that's the whole point of a softfork: backwards-compatibility; you can receive from Taproot users just fine, and once your wallet is updated for Taproot-sending support, you can send to Taproot users just fine as well!
(P2WPKH and P2WSH -- SegWit v0 -- addresses start with bc1q; Taproot -- SegWit v1 --- addresses start with bc1p, in case you wanted to know the difference; in bech32 q is 0, p is 1)
Now how about HODLers who keep all, or some, of their coins on custodial services? Well, any custodial service worth its salt would be doing at least 2-of-3, or probably something even bigger, like 11-of-15. So your custodial service, if it switched to using Taproot internally, could save a lot more (imagine an 11-of-15 getting reduced from 11 signatures to just 1!), which --- we can only hope! --- should translate to lower fees and better customer service from your custodial service!
So I think we can say, very accurately, that the Bitcoin principle --- that YOU are in control of your money --- can only be helped by Taproot (if you are doing multisignature), and, because P2PKH and P2WPKH remain validly-usable addresses in a Taproot future, will not be harmed by Taproot. Its benefit to this principle might be small (it mostly only benefits multisignature users) but since it has no drawbacks with this (i.e. singlesig users can continue to use P2WPKH and P2PKH still) this is still a nice, tidy win!
(even singlesig users get a minor benefit, in that multisig users will now reduce their blockchain space footprint, so that fees can be kept low for everybody; so for example even if you have your single set of private keys engraved on titanium plates sealed in an airtight box stored in a safe buried in a desert protected by angry nomads riding giant sandworms because you're the frickin' Kwisatz Haderach, you still gain some benefit from Taproot)
And here's the important part: if P2PKH/P2WPKH is working perfectly fine with you and you decide to never use Taproot yourself, Taproot will not affect you detrimentally. First do no harm!

Taproot and Your Contracts

No one is an island, no one lives alone. Give and you shall receive. You know: by trading with other people, you can gain expertise in some obscure little necessity of the world (and greatly increase your productivity in that little field), and then trade the products of your expertise for necessities other people have created, all of you thereby gaining gains from trade.
So, contracts, which are basically enforceable agreements that facilitate trading with people who you do not personally know and therefore might not trust.
Let's start with a simple example. You want to buy some gewgaws from somebody. But you don't know them personally. The seller wants the money, you want their gewgaws, but because of the lack of trust (you don't know them!! what if they're scammers??) neither of you can benefit from gains from trade.
However, suppose both of you know of some entity that both of you trust. That entity can act as a trusted escrow. The entity provides you security: this enables the trade, allowing both of you to get gains from trade.
In Bitcoin-land, this can be implemented as a 2-of-3 multisignature. The three signatories in the multisgnature would be you, the gewgaw seller, and the escrow. You put the payment for the gewgaws into this 2-of-3 multisignature address.
Now, suppose it turns out neither of you are scammers (whaaaat!). You receive the gewgaws just fine and you're willing to pay up for them. Then you and the gewgaw seller just sign a transaction --- you and the gewgaw seller are 2, sufficient to trigger the 2-of-3 --- that spends from the 2-of-3 address to a singlesig the gewgaw seller wants (or whatever address the gewgaw seller wants).
But suppose some problem arises. The seller gave you gawgews instead of gewgaws. Or you decided to keep the gewgaws but not sign the transaction to release the funds to the seller. In either case, the escrow is notified, and if it can sign with you to refund the funds back to you (if the seller was a scammer) or it can sign with the seller to forward the funds to the seller (if you were a scammer).
Taproot helps with this: like mentioned above, it allows multisignature setups to produce only one signature, reducing blockchain space usage, and thus making contracts --- which require multiple people, by definition, you don't make contracts with yourself --- is made cheaper (which we hope enables more of these setups to happen for more gains from trade for everyone, also, moon and lambos).
(technology-wise, it's easier to make an n-of-n than a k-of-n, making a k-of-n would require a complex setup involving a long ritual with many communication rounds between the n participants, but an n-of-n can be done trivially with some moon math. You can, however, make what is effectively a 2-of-3 by using a three-branch SCRIPT: either 2-of-2 of you and seller, OR 2-of-2 of you and escrow, OR 2-of-2 of escrow and seller. Fortunately, Taproot adds a facility to embed a SCRIPT inside a public key, so you can have a 2-of-2 Taprooted address (between you and seller) with a SCRIPT branch that can instead be spent with 2-of-2 (you + escrow) OR 2-of-2 (seller + escrow), which implements the three-branched SCRIPT above. If neither of you are scammers (hopefully the common case) then you both sign using your keys and never have to contact the escrow, since you are just using the escrow public key without coordinating with them (because n-of-n is trivial but k-of-n requires setup with communication rounds), so in the "best case" where both of you are honest traders, you also get a privacy boost, in that the escrow never learns you have been trading on gewgaws, I mean ewww, gawgews are much better than gewgaws and therefore I now judge you for being a gewgaw enthusiast, you filthy gewgawer).

Taproot and Your Contracts, Part 2: Cryptographic Boogaloo

Now suppose you want to buy some data instead of things. For example, maybe you have some closed-source software in trial mode installed, and want to pay the developer for the full version. You want to pay for an activation code.
This can be done, today, by using an HTLC. The developer tells you the hash of the activation code. You pay to an HTLC, paying out to the developer if it reveals the preimage (the activation code), or refunding the money back to you after a pre-agreed timeout. If the developer claims the funds, it has to reveal the preimage, which is the activation code, and you can now activate your software. If the developer does not claim the funds by the timeout, you get refunded.
And you can do that, with HTLCs, today.
Of course, HTLCs do have problems:
Fortunately, with Schnorr (which is enabled by Taproot), we can now use the Scriptless Script constuction by Andrew Poelstra. This Scriptless Script allows a new construction, the PTLC or Pointlocked Timelocked Contract. Instead of hashes and preimages, just replace "hash" with "point" and "preimage" with "scalar".
Or as you might know them: "point" is really "public key" and "scalar" is really a "private key". What a PTLC does is that, given a particular public key, the pointlocked branch can be spent only if the spender reveals the private key of the given private key to you.
Another nice thing with PTLCs is that they are deniable. What appears onchain is just a single 2-of-2 signature between you and the developemanufacturer. It's like a magic trick. This signature has no special watermarks, it's a perfectly normal signature (the pledge). However, from this signature, plus some datta given to you by the developemanufacturer (known as the adaptor signature) you can derive the private key of a particular public key you both agree on (the turn). Anyone scraping the blockchain will just see signatures that look just like every other signature, and as long as nobody manages to hack you and get a copy of the adaptor signature or the private key, they cannot get the private key behind the public key (point) that the pointlocked branch needs (the prestige).
(Just to be clear, the public key you are getting the private key from, is distinct from the public key that the developemanufacturer will use for its funds. The activation key is different from the developer's onchain Bitcoin key, and it is the activation key whose private key you will be learning, not the developer's/manufacturer's onchain Bitcoin key).
So:
Taproot lets PTLCs exist onchain because they enable Schnorr, which is a requirement of PTLCs / Scriptless Script.
(technology-wise, take note that Scriptless Script works only for the "pointlocked" branch of the contract; you need normal Script, or a pre-signed nLockTimed transaction, for the "timelocked" branch. Since Taproot can embed a script, you can have the Taproot pubkey be a 2-of-2 to implement the Scriptless Script "pointlocked" branch, then have a hidden script that lets you recover the funds with an OP_CHECKLOCKTIMEVERIFY after the timeout if the seller does not claim the funds.)

Quantum Quibbles!

Now if you were really paying attention, you might have noticed this parenthetical:
(technical details: a Taproot output is 1 version byte + 32 byte public key, while a P2WPKH (bech32 singlesig) output is 1 version byte + 20 byte public key hash...)
So wait, Taproot uses raw 32-byte public keys, and not public key hashes? Isn't that more quantum-vulnerable??
Well, in theory yes. In practice, they probably are not.
It's not that hashes can be broken by quantum computes --- they're still not. Instead, you have to look at how you spend from a P2WPKH/P2PKH pay-to-public-key-hash.
When you spend from a P2PKH / P2WPKH, you have to reveal the public key. Then Bitcoin hashes it and checks if this matches with the public-key-hash, and only then actually validates the signature for that public key.
So an unconfirmed transaction, floating in the mempools of nodes globally, will show, in plain sight for everyone to see, your public key.
(public keys should be public, that's why they're called public keys, LOL)
And if quantum computers are fast enough to be of concern, then they are probably fast enough that, in the several minutes to several hours from broadcast to confirmation, they have already cracked the public key that is openly broadcast with your transaction. The owner of the quantum computer can now replace your unconfirmed transaction with one that pays the funds to itself. Even if you did not opt-in RBF, miners are still incentivized to support RBF on RBF-disabled transactions.
So the extra hash is not as significant a protection against quantum computers as you might think. Instead, the extra hash-and-compare needed is just extra validation effort.
Further, if you have ever, in the past, spent from the address, then there exists already a transaction indelibly stored on the blockchain, openly displaying the public key from which quantum computers can derive the private key. So those are still vulnerable to quantum computers.
For the most part, the cryptographers behind Taproot (and Bitcoin Core) are of the opinion that quantum computers capable of cracking Bitcoin pubkeys are unlikely to appear within a decade or two.
So:
For now, the homomorphic and linear properties of elliptic curve cryptography provide a lot of benefits --- particularly the linearity property is what enables Scriptless Script and simple multisignature (i.e. multisignatures that are just 1 signature onchain). So it might be a good idea to take advantage of them now while we are still fairly safe against quantum computers. It seems likely that quantum-safe signature schemes are nonlinear (thus losing these advantages).

Summary

I Wanna Be The Taprooter!

So, do you want to help activate Taproot? Here's what you, mister sovereign Bitcoin HODLer, can do!

But I Hate Taproot!!

That's fine!

Discussions About Taproot Activation

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Decentr ($DEC) - foundational cross-chain and cross-platform DeFi protocol

  1. SUMMARY
Decentr is a protocol designed to make blockchain/DLT mainstream by allowing DeFi applications built on various blockchains to “talk to each other”. Decentr is a 100% secure and decentralised Web 3.0 protocol where users can apply PDV (personal data value) to increase APR on $DEC that users loan out as part of of our DeFi dLoan features, as well as it being applied at PoS when paying for stuff online. Decentr is also building a BAT competitor browser and Chrome/Firefox extension that acts as a gateway to 100% decentralised Web 3.0
Allows DeFi Dapps to access all Decentr’s dFintech features, including dLoan, dPay. Key innovation is that the protocols is based on a user’s ability to leverage the value of their data as exchangeable “currency”.
  1. KEY CONCEPTS

  1. REVENUE MODEL
A fee is charged for every transaction using dPay whereby an exchange takes place between money (fiat and digital) and data, and vice versa, either as part of DeFi features or via a dApp built on Decentr. They are launching pilot programmes in the following industries:
  1. Banking/PSP Industry: On Product launch, due to Decentr’s powerful PSP connections (including the worlds #2 PSP by volume), a medium-scale pilot program will be launched, which will seed the network with 150,000 PSP customers in primarily the Spanish/LAC markets, generating revenue from day one.
  2. “Bricks and Mortar” Supermarket/Grocery Industry: Decentr aims to ensure the long-term competitiveness of “bricks and mortar” supermarkets against online-only grocery retailers, such as Amazon, by a) building secure tech that allows supermarkets to digitise every aspect of their supply chains and operational functions, while b) allowing supermarkets to leverage this incredibly valuable data as a liquid asset class. Expected revenue by Year 5: $114Mn per year.
  3. Online Advertising Industry: Decentr’s 100% decentralised platform credits users secure data with payable value, in the form of PDV, for engaging with ads. The Brave browser was launched in 2012 and in 8 years has reached over 12 million monthly active users, accented by as many as 4.3 million daily active users.
  4. TOKEN $DEC AND SALE
Decentr recently complete their token sale on a purchase portal powered by Dolomite where they raised $974,000 in 10 minutes for a total sale hardcap of 1.25M. The $DEC token is actively trading on multiple exchanges including Uniswap and IDEX. Listed for free on IDEX, Hotbit, Hoo, Coinw, Tidex, BKex. Listed on CoinGecko and Coinmarketcap. Listed on Delta and Blockfolio apps.
➡️ Circulating supply: 61m $DEC.
➡️ Release schedule and token distribution LINK -> NO RELEASE UNTIL 2021.
➡️Contract Address - 0x30f271C9E86D2B7d00a6376Cd96A1cFBD5F0b9b3
➡️Decimals - 18, Ticker - DEC
➡️Uniswap link: https://uniswap.info/pai0x3AEEE5bA053eF8406420DbC5801fC95eC57b0E0A
⭐️ HOW TO BUY VIDEO: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iloAiv2oCRc&feature=youtu.be
$DEC Token utility:
A tradeable unit of value that is both internal and external to the Decentr platform.A unit of conversion between fiat entering and exiting the Decentr ecosystem.A way to capture the value of user data and combines the activity of every participant of the platform performing payment (dPay), or lending and borrowing (dLend), i.e a way to peg PDV to tangible/actionable value.Method of payment in the Decentr ecosystem.A method to internally underwrite the “Deconomy.
  1. NOTABLE SUPPORTERS
Simon Dedic - chief of Blockfyre: https://twitter.com/scoinaldo/status/1283787644221218817?s=20https://twitter.com/scoinaldo/status/1283719917657894912?s=21
Spectre Group Pick : https://twitter.com/SPECTREGRP/status/1284761576873041920https://twitter.com/llluckyl/status/1283765481716015111?s=21
Patrons of the Moon/Lil Uzi: https://t.me/patronsofthemoon/6764
CryptoGems: https://twitter.com/cryptogems_com/status/1283719318379925506?s=09t
tehMoonwalker pick who is a TOP 5 influencer per Binance:https://twitter.com/tehMoonwalkestatus/1284123961996050432?s=20https://twitter.com/binance/status/1279049822113198080
Holochain was one of their earliest supporters and they share a deep connection (recently an AMA was conducted in their TG group): https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/decentr-holochain-ama-29d662caed03
  1. UPCOMING NEWS
--------------------------------------------
  1. RESOURCES:
Website: https://decentr.net
Telegram: https://t.me/DecentrNet
Medium: https://medium.com/@DecentrNet
Twitter: https://twitter.com/DecentrNet
Whitepaper: https://decentr.net/files/Decentr_Whitepaper_V1.4.pdf
Technical Whitepaper: https://decentr.net/files/Decentr_Technical_Whitepaper_Data_As_Economic_Currency.pdf
Recent Articles:
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/decentr-token-sale-metrics-and-distribution-483bb3c58d05
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/how-decentrs-defi-dloan-function-benefits-dec-holders-97ff64a0c105
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/3-vertical-revenue-streams-decentr-is-targeting-4fa1f3dd62de
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/brave-browser-the-good-the-bad-and-the-fundamentally-misguided-8a8593b0ff5b
⚡️- https://medium.com/@DecentrNet/how-decentrs-dfintech-replaces-swift-sct-inst-clearing-house-and-other-payment-solutions-78acacbb4c3f
Chad Gang STRONG Community: https://t.me/decentrtrading
Community News Channel: https://t.me/chadnews
Recent Uniswap trades: https://t.me/dectrades
Wallet holder tracker: https://t.me/DEC_WALLETS_COUNT
submitted by ldd999 to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

small passive income while browsing the web

Introduction
If you were on the internet in the late 1990s, you might remember companies like "AllAdvantage" that promised to pay you to browse the web. You could install a program that tracked your browsing and showed you targeted ads at the top of the screen, then "AllAdvantage" would give you a cut of the ad revenue you generated.
These schemes largely disappeared after the dot-com crash. But Brendan Eich, the creator of the JavaScript programming language and cofounder and former CTO of Mozilla, thinks his company Brave Software has found a way to revive that old idea.
What is it?
Brave makes a browser based on Google Chrome that blocks tracking scripts and other technologies that spy on your online activity. As a result, it also blocks many web ads; if you visit any website using the Brave browser, you won’t see any ads. But Brave will give users the option to see ads that Eich says will respect your privacy. The ads will appear as desktop notifications, he says, not as replacements for the ads the Brave browser blocks. So you still won’t see ads on any website, but you might see them on the right lower corner of your screen. If you choose to see these ads, you’ll get 70 percent of the revenue they generate.
Eich hopes Brave can solve two of the web's most vexing problems the privacy and revenue problem by turning the traditional digital advertising model on its head. Today, ad networks pay sites for ad space and web browsers like Brave and Chrome deliver content from those publishers to users. Brave is trying to put the browser in the center of the advertising experience. Instead of paying publishers directly, ad networks would pay Brave, which will pass part of the money to users and keep a cut for itself.
By handling advertising in the browser on your device, Brave says it will be able to target ads without sending your data to the cloud, and protect your privacy. When you interact with an ad on Brave, the browser sends notice to the company's servers, but doesn't include any identifying information. Eich sees four sets of winners: browser makers get paid; users get paid, and get more privacy; advertisers can target pitches without running afoul of European privacy regulations; and publishers can survive in a world where many users are installing ad blockers.
Publishers and ad networks might bristle at the idea of putting browser makers in the middle of their business. But in recent years browsers have taken a more active role in shaping the web, instead of merely displaying a website’s content. Chrome now blocks ads on a small number of sites with particularly egregious advertising practices, while browsers like Firefox and Safari have added privacy protections. Meanwhile, browser plugins are giving users more control over their experience. There are Chrome extensions, for example, that let you change Facebook's color scheme, or change the way images are displayed on Pinterest. And of course there are extensions that block all ads.
Trying to win advertisers and publishers to a new model isn't Brave's only challenge. It also needs users. Eich says Brave has 15 million users and is growing.
Brave will give users a 70 percent cut of its advertising revenue, which Eich estimates could work out to about $10 a month. Brave will pay users with its own bitcoin-style "cryptocurrency” called Basic Attention Tokens or BAT, which has traded for as little as 24 cents over the past 12 months, according to CoinMarketCap. You can exchange the BAT you have received for viewing ads into USD, EUR, GBP, CHF and many more currencies.
The company offers a service through the cryptocurrency exchange Uphold to allow users to change, sell and buy BAT or donate it to publishers, and for publishers to exchange the BAT they receive for dollars. Advertisers like HomeDepot or recent campaigns included brands such as Verizon, Newegg, Chipotle, and PayPal/Honey, in addition to earlier campaigns by Amazon, Harry’s Razors, Intel, CBS, KIND snacks, Logitech, Lenovo, Grubhub, Belkin, Quickbooks, Evernote and some of cryptocurrency related companies, will be able to buy ads either with BAT or with traditional currencies.
Eich says Brave opted to create its own tokens using the Ethereum cryptocurrency platform in part to avoid regulatory requirements, such as verifying users' identifies, that partners like Uphold are better equipped to handle.
Estimated revenue? (depending on the country you live in the revenue can be higher or lower)
I made around 3oo$ so far this year using 3 devices, just for viewing some ads.
5 months so far july is not included if you calculate it down for 1 device, 100$/5months = 20$ a month just for viewing ads, you would need to buy risky stocks worth of 2000$ to get the same amount per month.
can only recommend everyone to try it, not every country has the same number of advertisers so you probably get the most out of it when you live in the USA.
If you are interested here is a quick guide how to set it up to get the max amount out of Brave:
Quickstartguide:
1 Download brave here
2 Activate the reward system (gif link below)Gif link
3 go into the settings an deactivate auto contribution and activate 5 ads per hour (image link below)image link
4 Create an Account on Uphold and connect it with your BraveBrowser.
Now you are good to go and can make some money on something you do anyway.
I hope this helps some folks in the community to make some extra bucks.
edit1:you can find more infos and support here:brave_browser & BATProject or www.brave.com
edit2:the earnings are depenging on the number of devices you are using and were you are living. Best paying countries: United States (69) United Kingdom (39) Canada (36) Australia (35) New Zealand (26) Germany (21) Ireland (21) France (18)( the number next to the country are the companies that are running ads on brave for this particular country, the more companies the more revenue )
you can find a full list with all countries and campaigns here: https://brave.com/transparency/
edit3:You don't need to browse to a certain website to receive ads, just browse as you are used to, play browser games, watch videos on youtube or do whatever you want.Sometimes Ads appear on the startpage looks like that https://i.imgur.com/5tohhRc.jpg and after some time on the right lower corner a clickable pop-up appears looks like that->https://i.imgur.com/CTGdVsu.png
edit4:If you want to import your bookmarks and settings from your old browser:on the right top corner of the browser is a button ->https://i.imgur.com/oi8EAri.jpg click it > than on settings > and than you got the option to import bookmarks and settings from your old browser.
If you want to sync brave between devices and for backups:type brave://flags/ into the adressbar and than brave sync into the search bar and acticate itif its enabled it should look like this https://imgur.com/a/tCMDgDjthan just click on sync ->https://i.imgur.com/oi8EAri.jpg
here is a guide ->https://support.brave.com/hc/en-us/articles/360021218111-How-do-I-set-up-Sync
edit5: Don't keep your BAT from free token grants to long in your browser, always send your bat to an external wallet or exchange like uphold, only tokens from free token grants have an expire date if they dont get used they go back to the bat pool. you can find more infos about this here -> https://support.brave.com/hc/en-us/articles/360018305731-Why-does-my-BAT-have-an-expiration-date-
submitted by OnlyReveal6 to beermoneyglobal [link] [comments]

Great talk from Joseph Pool @ scaling bitcoin re offchain options. Good to watch unless you're Btrash.

Great talk from Joseph Pool @ scaling bitcoin re offchain options. Good to watch unless you're Btrash. submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Great talk from Joseph Pool @ scaling bitcoin re offchain options. Good to watch unless you're Btrash.

Great talk from Joseph Pool @ scaling bitcoin re offchain options. Good to watch unless you're Btrash. submitted by _simulacra_ to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Neighbourhood Pool Watch: Historical Bitcoin investment returns

Neighbourhood Pool Watch: Historical Bitcoin investment returns submitted by Amith_Nirgunarthy to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Bitcoin price and pool mining info on Z Watch

Bitcoin price and pool mining info on Z Watch submitted by nofeihua to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

I have been watching you for a while, you know. Wasn't sure whether to invest, but now I know that I must? (FUSION. Could have also prevented the Statera balancer hack?)

So this project caught my (and probably many other people's) attention at least once last year. Especially after the foundation had some of its funds stolen which saw the token's price tank massively. I kind of forgot about it until seeing it being veeeery low-key mentioned on TG again recently and it appears to have 5xed over the last few months, essentially returning back to its old price level, while still being relatively low cap. Also sitting nicely next to LTO (another actually professional, albeit slow-burning, project) on https://coinstats.network/, rising rapidly throughout the ranks over the last weeks. (The top three performers at the time of this post are VeChain, LTO, and FSN, as you can see at the right top.)
 
 
Anyway... I did some digging, and frankly, I feel like simply quoting Dejun Qian (leader of Fusion and also founder of BitSE, which later enabled the rise of VeChain), because he does an overall decent enough job at explaining the general gist behind Fusion -- a blockchain designed in particular with decentralized finance (DEFI) in mind:
 
 
Whereas...
 
 
...most of which (Time-Lock, DCRM and Quantum Swap) are patented. Although it should also be mentioned how the Telegram frequently questions the ability to enforce these patents. And depending on your personal outlook in regards to patents in the cryptospace, you could generally consider this a big negative point. Or, if you only care about money, a very positive one. With the latter likely aligning more with this sub's interests.
 
Anyway... Time-locking simply refers to you locking in any type of asset (real or digital) and then being able to lend it for some set amount of time (time-slice) without giving up ownership. This could have been useful in preventing, for example, the Statera Balancer hack, since you merely give up access to your asset for a certain amount of time while still retaining ownership yourself. E.g. you could have granted the Balancer 3 months of access to your assets. Whereas, had your assets been stolen by a bad actor within this time-frame as it happend in the Statera/Balancer case, you would still have received all of your assets back after these 3 months passed. No assets would have been lost on your end. So this mechanism, patented by Fusion, adds additional security. (Their Ticketed Proof of Stake (TPoS) mechanism works the same way -- You never risk actually losing your tokens forever. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FX57OwpNNMA )(Also: You are also free to correct me in case this doesn't actually work with Balancer's mechanics.)
 
In general, the borrowing of the (front end; now to some point in the future) time-slice finds application in finance what bonds, futures, options, etc is concerned, again making fusion a great choice for DEFI. To again cite Qian:
 
 
(If you're into this stuff, it's easy to just search for words such as "factoring" or "bank draft" or "clearing house" in the official Telegram channel https://t.me/FUSIONFoundation . Also in relationship to upcoming and borrowed FSN tokens, which can be combined to form whole FSN tokens.)
 
Another more concrete use-case would be, for example, the granting of access to a house's or car's digital lock without giving up direct ownership of these assets for a certain amount of time, after which said access will be returned to its owner. Additionally, it's also possible to resell parts of this access in case you no longer have any use for it. (E.g. if you license a software for 6 months, but suddenly decide to no longer have any use for it after a mere 2 months, you can resell the remaining 4 months that are left.)
 
 
Also worthy of mention might be some of the bigger Fusion-related DEFI (hype!) projects being built on the Fusion blockchain:
 
  • WeDefi, which aims to be, or allows for users to act as, a kind of decentralized bank; stream-lining lending/borrowing and other kinds of DEFI; will come as APP to the IOS and Play-Store for the Smartphone soon.
  • SMPCwallet. Will include DCRM dapps such as a multichain DEX, a multicustodial wallet, etc (fixing problems related to key exposure mentioned by Vitalik in an AMA linked later in this post)
  • Anyswap, a cross-chain/interoperability version of Uniswap. Qian suggests that it could in the future also serve a function similar to Compound, letting you pick up a collateral in exchange for the provision of liquidity. (Built on SMPCwallet AFAIK; a recent post shilling it here -> https://old.reddit.com/CryptoMoonShots/comments/hprd2p/anyswap_a_completely_decentralized_swap_exchange/)
  • An auto-loan platform by AXP
  • Realio and YAD Capital issuing digitized assets to be tokenized on the FSN blockchain. Meaning securities, etc. Currently they're trying to raise a $5mm tokenized fund. (Also worth mentioning here is that SolidX, who have experience and SEC connections working on a Bitcoin ETF, are part of Fusion's DCRM Alliance)
  • And more. https://www.fusion.org/partnerships hovering over the links gives some input. xDLT is built on fusion, for instance, offering an interoperable form of etherscan. (To my understanding...)
 
Then here's a great AMA you should read: https://fsnfeed.com/2020/05/23/on-23st-of-may-2020-dj-qian-ceo-of-fusion-foundation-had-a-live-ama-session-with-kevin-of-ama-series-stayhome/
 
And if you want to try out Fusion, you can sign up at WeDefi and play around with borrowed tokens and even earn full tokens by doing so. Take note, however, that only full tokens may be staked, should you plan to do so. ( https://www.wedefi.com/faq )
 
 
As for the FSN token value, it would appreciate simply by virtue of gas fees, staking, DCRM which can be licensed in exchange for 800k FSN, potential applications of time-locking relative to assets and the Fusion token (looking at safebet, for instance), etc... as Fusion is adopted. The staking ROI is currently at 23%. (I can't really make a prediction about the token's value development here, since the entire system and the potential applications really exceed my knowledge. And, being crypto, odds are that putting a price on it might be impossible for just about anyone.)
 
The best way of storing FSN is whallet, which can be used in conjunction with your Ledger's Ethereum app. (MyFusionWallet was experiencing synchronization problems the other day, but seems to be working perfectly fine again as of the time of this post.)
 
 
A relatively big negative point frequently mentioned by the community is the lack of marketing and the team losing its first-mover advantage, which is a concern the Fusion team has recently tried to address. As REN, for instance, which allows for but a portion of Fusion's use case such as an allegedly inferior version of DCRM and dark pools/clearing houses (and according to the Fusion community of course worse), has recently gone on a small bullrun of its own. Much to the chagrin of disillusioned Fusion bagholders. And I've personally also seen TrustSwap make an appearance, which appears to aim for the creation of a crosschain version of UniSwap much akin to AnySwap. (I'm not 100% sure about this, however.)
 
If you have any personal opinions, you are free to share them. Maybe you consider it obsolete in the future, especially if we do end up in a "one chain takes all" scenario? Alternatively you could be holding the belief that it can moon simply due to the #defi hype? Perhaps there's not enough marketing on the team's part? Or is FSN really under the radar, being ignored (and thus massively undervalued) for the time being only because the features offered by FSN are not yet fully appreciated in the still fledgling DEFI space, with ETH simply not being suitable for DEFI, and FSN suddenly making an appearance in the top 35 without anyone having noticed? Etc? Any disgruntled bagholders here who want to vent or add something I forgot? Now's your chance.
 
 
P.S.: All this is probably also a relatively superficial explaination that doesn't capture the project's value in a way people like Qian could explain it, especially what the use of time-slices (both front and back, and their combination), the long-term renting and valuation of front-slices, and the number of financial applications, is concerned... but I hope it serves as a good general overview, also what references to other DEFI projects is concerned. And it has taken off a bit recently, like many projects in this mini-bull run. So some people may no longer consider it low cap. But I'm still gonna post it so it doesn't go to waste. Lol. At the very least it might serve as general overview. That and the sub rules state "cryptos out of the top 100.")
 
Also disclaimer: I am holding a decently sized bag myself. (And I really hoped it wouldn't cross 70 cent so "soon," all things considered...)
submitted by sotaponi to CryptoMoonShots [link] [comments]

Watch the only bitcoin sponsored esports team compete in CS:GO for prize pool of $10k! LIVE in 30minutes!

Watch the only bitcoin sponsored esports team compete in CS:GO for prize pool of $10k! LIVE in 30minutes! submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

When is the difficulty adjustment algorithm going to be fixed?

When it comes to Bitcoin Cash's difficulty adjustment algorithm, it is having many issues. We've come across situations in which several consecutive blocks are mined in a few minutes, which can be bad for security, and the overall credibility of Bitcoin Cash. I've looked at the block explorer as well, and there are times when the antminer pool gets 5-6 blocks in 10 minutes. Though the average is still at the proper 10 minutes, I can foresee this causing many issues, and making Bitcoin Cash potentially fail. If this DAA isn't fixed, a big mining pool that is opposed to Bitcoin Cash can easily increase (and switch over hashrate from BTC to BCH), causing the difficulty to increase, and then leave the pool almost immediately so the pool of smaller hashrate will take SIGNIFICANTLY longer to solve that block. I have seen this at points where Bitcoin Cash blocks have gotten extremely long (ex. ~2 hours after the reward halving), and that's an issue that needs solving. I saw a video on youtube by u/jtoomim that explained this pretty well. This isn't the first time I've heard of this problem. I saw a thread that discussed how miners can "game" the DAA. Is there going to be a change in this adjustment algorithm anytime soon?
submitted by 1MightBeAPenguin to btc [link] [comments]

Stonks Only Go Up

In a dark room, deep in the bowels of the White House, a man wearing a worn and stained gray robe hefts his body against an enormous crank. Attached to the crank is a huge printer and with each rotation, sheets of uncut dollar bills spew onto the hard concrete floor. Sweat glistens on his face as a low brr fills the room.
The only light in the room emanates from a large flat screen. A dark silhouette of a man standing in front of it staring intently at the flashing headlines reading “Record Unemployment” and “Stock Market Collapse”. The red Fox News logo appears in the corner of the screen.
The man on the crank stops for a moment and wipes his brow. With his back hunches and eyes glued to the floor, he shuffles over to the shrouded individual.
The hunched servant stands behind the figure and stammers “My lord….”
“Yes, my loyal J Pow.” says the silhouette, still watching the images flash on the screen.
“Shall we increase the printing?”
“My dear J Pow, we will increase the levels but we must wait until the perfect moment.”
“But my lord… the congressional tenides are suffering. They will be furious in the senate.”
“Don’t question my foresight! I alerted the chiefs months ago about the situation at hand. Their tendies are secure.”
“But my lord… My personal account is obliterated… How will I be able to feed my family?”
“Silence J Pow! You must trust my generosity. You will receive max tendies for your loyal service.”
“Yes my lord…”
A sharp knock on the door is heard.
J Pow shuffles to the door and opens it a sliver. The yellow light from the hall spills into the dark basement.
“General Mnuchin here to to see you, my lord.”
“Send him in.”
General Mnuchin marches into the room. His uniform is decorated with many medals and a red cape flows behind him. He kneels behind The Lord, who’s back is still turned towards the screen.
“What do you have to report General?”
“The rebels are growing stronger my lord. Our attempts to quell them are backfiring. Their forces are growing stronger with each passing da-”
Suddenly, the shrouded man turns around from the tv screen and flicks out his hand. The general grabs his neck as he is slowly lifted into the air by an invisible chokehold.
“General, might I remind you that it is your duty to keep the population in check.”
“eee.. I can’t…. breath..” says the General tugging at the invisible hand around his neck.
The screen changes to a clip of a masked protester giving a speech to a rabble crowd.
“Exit the system. Buy Bitcoin.” says the masked man into a megaphone
Although he is shrouded, a deep anger is felt engulfing The Darklord’s aura. He squeezes his hand further, tightening the grip on Mnuchin’s neck.
“That reminds me. What do you have to report about Dr. Satoshi whereabouts?”
“He…. is…. anonymous..” says Mnuchin struggling to breath
The Lord releases his hand and the general falls into a heap on the floor.
“Bitcoin is a threat to our sovereignty, General. We must shut it down. Inform your colleagues at Goldman to trash the coin publicly but continue to accumulate via dark pools. Flood the market with shitcoins to confuse the retail investors. As long as Bitcoin’s true potential is hidden from the population, we can proceed with our plans… There can only be one true money Mnuchin and that is the money we brrr right here in this very basement.”
The general lies motionless on the floor and does not respond.
“I believed we could pacify the masses with $1,200 and a note signed by your truly but clearly we need more. J Pow, The moment is nigh! 100x the power! Flood Wall St. Bets with unlimited tendies. We need their DD to encourage the population to FOMO into the market.”
“My liege…. you will lay waste to this great empire. It’s best to incrementally increase the supply to remain undetected! Unlimited QE will cause more unrest!”
“I don’t need your opinion and I don’t need you!”
The dark lord stretches out his hand and a blue energy pulse from his fingertips. The crank of the printer starts to turn slowly at first but within seconds, it starts to spin violently, threatening to detach from the printer itself. The brr turns from a low purr into a load roar. Dollar bills fly out at frighting speeds.
A green message flashes on the TV screen “best day in stock market history since 1984.”
With his hand outstretched, a cracked smile on his face, and dollar bills flying around the room like confetti, the dark lord mutters to himself “stonks only go up.”
submitted by ggabriel8 to btc [link] [comments]

The future of dApp development. The end of blockchain tribalism

The future of dApp development. The end of blockchain tribalism
If you are a dApp developer this is a must read!
As all the blockchains have their advantages and disadvantages there is no blockchain which will rule them all. Each blockchain will get congested as soon there are too much “mass adoption” dApps on it, which actually getting used. One blockchain is more decentralized, another more performant.
The solution are decentralized services which are validated and 100% ONchain. A platform layer where dApps can choose what they need, without important trade-offs for their applications. And everybody who want to offer a service, can offer them as a Service Provider. The DAPP services are the new (Amazon) Web Services but decentralized, affordable and for blockchains. Today the DAPP Network counts already 35 DSP’s (DAPP Service Providers) offering 120 services (packages) and counting…
The internet of Blockchains - enabled by the universal middleware of the DAPP Network
The DAPP Network is the first solution which offers this kind of decentralized services. And with the Chintai.io DAPP Resource Exchange where developers can rent DAPP tokens for an affordable price for 30 days, they can pay monthly with a ‘pay-as-you-go” model for their resources and scale their dApps step by step. And it doesn’t make a difference if it’s a new developed dApp or if somebody want to use services for an already existing dApp. If the dApp already exists on a specific blockchain, it can stay on that blockchain and nonetheless use services or scale without tradeoffs. No need any more to change to another blockchain thanks to LiquidLink.
What do you think will happen to the crypto space when companies and big enterprises start to realize that they are independent of any specific blockchain and that they can scale/tokenize their dApps 100% ONchain to an affordable price to mass adoption without any tradeoffs?
Get/Buy DAPP tokens on Bancor.network or Newdex.io before big exchanges start to list DAPP. Today DAPP is worth 0.015$ per token. The concept is in my opinion a breakthrough! Just think about Chainlink is today around 5$ per token. And Chainlink is offering only one service (oracles) which DAPPNetwork offers.
With Zeus SDK LiquidApps.io offers an open source plug and play development platform/middleware. Github: https://github.com/liquidapps-io

Showcase LiquidOracles, LiquidAccounts, LiquidScheduler, or vRAM in your dApps and you could win a grant of up to 300,000 DAPP tokens! https://medium.com/the-liquidapps-blog/announcing-the-dapp-network-grants-program-7b104e1ce1d6
Use LiquidLink, along with the rest of the DAPP Network’s multi-chain service suite, to participate in the Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and you could win up to 1,000,000 DAPP tokens! https://app.voice.com/post/@zack/the-dapp-networks-reddit-scaling-bounty-1594068605-1 Team DAPP Solutions is actively engaged in the Great Reddit Scaling Bakeoff, if you have an interest in joining this initiative, reach out to http://dappsolutions.app to collaborate
If you have questions get in contact with LiquidApps team! They and Beni Hakak personally will support and help you that your dApp will stay affordable for you and have the best chance to get successful!


Working services today, offered by multiple DSP’s to choose from, 100% all ONchain, are:
LiquidLink: LiquidLink allows you to connect your dApp to assets, actions, and applications on any blockchain you want (Bitcoin, Ethereum, EOSIO chains like EOS, WAX, Worbli, Ultra, Telos, BOS, …). Working and integrated product today
LiquidX: LiquidX enables dApps to run on the blockchain of their choice and still enjoy all of the benefits of using DAPP Network services Working and integrated product today
More chains (Neo, Tron, Hyperledger, Hedera, Tezos, Cosmos, Cardano, Polkadot, Solana, ...) can/could be added as soon a dApp want to connect to them
Proofen link to Ethereum and EOSIO chains. Already integrated in CoVax and Project Phoenix.
LiquidChains: Blockchain as a Service with unprecedented customizability. Your Chain, Your Choice! LiquidChains are fast, easy, fully customizable blockchains for your project, running on the popular proof of work or proof of stake consensus mechanisms. Each LiquidChain comes out of the box with the full suite of DAPP Network services ready for use. Working and integrated product today
https://preview.redd.it/bmw3ior4y7951.png?width=649&format=png&auto=webp&s=6fee388254119a0d62b0bfd870b107b8c40c6bde
Sharding: With LiquidChains developers can now spin up feature-rich, custom shards in minutes and seamlessly connect it to a public network (if they want to.) If you’re an Ethereum developer that needs to scale right now, get in touch with the LiquidApps team about harnessing LiquidChains to create a custom shard for your dApp! Working product today
Liquid vCPU: Boundless Computational Power. With vCPU, your application can offload intense computing work to the distributed DAPP Network. Working product today
https://preview.redd.it/4e7cbwy6y7951.png?width=645&format=png&auto=webp&s=cf56a072dc8555840db7046675657a2876db6cdd
LiquidOracles: Choose from different DSP’s low latency oracle services. LiquidOracles stands out by keeping SLAs and data verification on chain, protecting you from the risks of malicious or accidental failure. Protect your data streams from being modified by malicious parties. Decentralized and trustless, without needing a separate blockchain. LiquidOracles are a more generalized and flexible solution than other oracle solutions like Chainlink. They also do not have any limitations with gas fees or block times. For example, EOS Options (on Kylin) is currently calling multiple price feeds every 15 seconds using LiquidOracles and have also tweeted recently about their plans to update their oracle feeds every 1 second. Things like that just aren’t possible on Ethereum at this time. Working and already integrated product today in eosoptions.com, Equilibrium EOSDT stablecoin and Project Phoenix
DSP's (DAPP Service Providers) could integrate Chainlink as part of their data feeds, and Chainlink could utilize the DAPP Network to gain some additional advantages. Link and DAPP are better together
LiquidScheduler: Set timed events. Free up resources when users become inactive. Schedule regular checks of data sources. Take advantage of options to make your application more resistant to unreliable providers and infrastructure failures. It’s a Cron-Like Task Scheduler Example: regularly update from oracle feed (Example all 15 seconds) Working and already integrated product today in eosoptions.com, Equilibrium EOSDT stablecoin and Project Phoenix
LiquidBrinX: Frictionless Cross-Chain Data Transfer. Now anyone can deploy a cross-blockchain token bridge to allow for asset transfers in between chains! LiquidBrinX blends together vRAM, LiquidOracles and LiquidScheduler to yield a smooth and secure interoperability solution for dApps. Proofen and working product today
LiquidAccounts: LiquidAccounts allows dApps to provide users with free accounts, created easily, by inputting simple, familiar details such as only a username and password. Eliminate onboarding difficulties with a solution that remains secure and trustless, all while being able to easily transition accounts to mainnet accounts when requested. Working and already integrated product today in dappacount.com and Project Phoenix
LiquidStorage: IPFS decentralized storage. Decentralized Storage for Files, Websites, and More. Proofen and working product today. Already integrated with Equilibrium EOSDT stablecoin and Project Phoenix
Liquid vRam: Alternative & Compatible Memory Solution. vRAM is an alternative memory solution for developers building blockchain dApps that is RAM-compatible, decentralized, and enables storing & retrieving of potentially unlimited amounts of data affordably and efficiently Working and already integrated product today with Moonlighting (700’000 users), Equilibrium EOSDT stablecoin and Project Phoenix
LiquidArchive: History API Provisioning Proofen and working product today
LiquidCrypto: LiquidCrypto service offer a whole suite of cryptographic algorithms from ECC, RSA signatures & encryptions to ZK-Snarks, Blind signatures Proofen and working product today. Already integrated in Project Phoenix
LiquidHarmony: Web/IBC/vCP/SQL Services Proofen and working product today
Liquid KMS: Key Management Service Proofen and working product today
LiquidSQL: decentralized databases. Proofen and working product today
LiquidBilling: Transaction signing service Proofen and working product today
LiquidDNS: DAPP Service Provider hosted DNS Service Proofen and working product today
LiquidLens: Read function service Proofen and working product today
LiquidRandomness: Easy, Secure Random Number Generation. Blockchains, by nature, exclude the possibility of easily obtaining truly random numbers for use in applications. As a result, numerous dApps have been gamed. Easily implement randomness without resorting to vulnerable, complex, or expensive methods Proofen and working product today
https://preview.redd.it/wvh77p7ry7951.png?width=650&format=png&auto=webp&s=6c9c5bfdbb1216e7c4585d870b9663fa60aa9858
LiquidEscrow: Today’s most successful centralized applications are popular because they are simple, trustworthy, and predictable. What if we could leverage Discord, the world’s largest internet gaming community, to bring millions of gamers a brand new experience on a platform that they already know and love? Team Onessus have harnessed the power of the DAPP network to offer these gamers something amazing: A Global Economic Esports Community, utilizing a new DAPP Network Service, which we call LiquidEscrow. Proofen and working product today
Project Phoenix (a Patreon-like dApp) is a showcase for mostly all the DAPP services and how you can use them. The code will soon be opensource on github. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=y-VYlv73mqI

https://preview.redd.it/mpgnuppty7951.png?width=653&format=png&auto=webp&s=0e8c7de3d047a3e85b69545169a875146bcae609
#DAPPNetwork can be fast like EOSIO, it can be with sharding like Cosmos, it can be decentralized like Ethereum, it can be with IBC like BOS, it can be true multi-chain like polkadot, it can be encrypted like privacy coins (Soon maybe as well with Monero tech if PEOS project succeed and if DSP offer this services), it can be stored ONchain like Filecoin, it can use oracles like chainlink (but with low latency) – It offers TODAY what 7 blockchains or more combined would offer!


And now tell me again, whats your excuse that you are not using DAPPNetwork’s service’s and/or developing with Zeus SDK from LiquidApps.io?


Showcase LiquidOracles, LiquidAccounts, LiquidScheduler, or vRAM in your dApps and you could win a grant of up to 300,000 DAPP tokens! https://medium.com/the-liquidapps-blog/announcing-the-dapp-network-grants-program-7b104e1ce1d6
Use LiquidLink, along with the rest of the DAPP Network’s multi-chain service suite, to participate in the Great Reddit Scaling Bake-Off and you could win up to 1,000,000 DAPP tokens! https://app.voice.com/post/@zack/the-dapp-networks-reddit-scaling-bounty-1594068605-1


Become a DSP: https://liquidapps.io/becoming-a-DSP
More information about all the services: https://liquidapps.io/news
DAPP talk videos with the liquidapps team: https://liquidapps.io/videos
Articles on medium: https://medium.com/the-liquidapps-blog
LiquidApps documentation: https://docs.liquidapps.io/en/v2.0/
SDK Zeus: https://liquidapps.io/zeus
Webinars & Walkthroughs: https://liquidapps.io/walkthroughs
Zeus documentation: https://docs.liquidapps.io/en/stable/developers/zeus-getting-started.html
Telegram Developers DAPPNetwork: https://t.me/dappnetworkdevs

DAPP Solutions offer DAPP Academy and help amazing projects get to market. Freemium Resource Model: https://dappsolutions.app/
Blockstart provide training, mentorship and connect blockchain enthusiasts to the tools and funding opportunities to make their ideas come true: https://blockstart.one/

LiquidApps invites bounty hunters, EOSIO and blockchain experts and hackers to search the DAPP Network’s codebase for vulnerabilities, flaws, and imperfections for a chance to earn a portion of up to 10,000,000 DAPP tokens available for this bounty (up to 1% of the total token supply)


Projegts using DAPPNetwork today:
DAPP Solutions are scaling Reddit with DAPPNetwork scaling services and LiquidLink
dappaccount.com uses liquidaccounts
The first custom integration from DAPPAccount is with Orcanic Community Market, who are using it to create blockchain accounts for every user on the platform to tokenize their membership and rewards program.
Moonlighting (700'000 users) uses vRAM and reduce onboarding costs from $2000 to $10 a day!
CoVax uses LiquidChains and LiquidLink/LiquidX
eosoptions.com uses LiquidOracles and LiquidScheduler which updates on average every 15 seconds!
Phoenix uses mostly all LiquidServices
Equilibrium EOSDT stablecoin integrated liquidOracles, liquidScheduler, liquidStorage and liquidvRam
Maybe upcoming projects (rumors, interviews, tweets, hackathon's, maybe's) using/integrating DAPPNetwork are:
Blockstart and DAPP Solutions partnered to solve real world business problems and bring blockchain to the masses with digital Signatures Blokument using DAPPAccount
deWeb.io plans to integrate vRam and LiquidAccounts to scale, maybe using LiquidX and LiquidLink to connect to other chains and maybe using LiquidOracles and LiquidStorage for many potential deWeb online services, built by 3rd party developers or in-house (Telegram)
Bancor maybe integrates liquidOracles once they create a new pool on EOS they said on Telegram
Team Aikon is hard at work utilizing LiquidAccounts to make seamless sign-in a reality
Onessus plans to integrate LiquidChains and LiquidRandomness (Telegram) in HodlGod (Battle royale title, just like Fortnite - today running on WAX blockchain)
Hackathon project The Global Economic ESports Community & LiquidEscrow invented LiquidEscrow service
Hackathon project EOS Resource Lending on Centralized Exchange (CEX) using liquidAccounts, liquidOracles and liquidvRam
Hackathon project Liquid Galaxy Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Game using liquidOracles, liquidScheduler, liquidvCPU, liquidLink
Hackathon project Rekt.Land blockchain-based board game using liquidAccounts, liquidStorage and liquidLink
Everipedia‘s maybe integrates liquidOracles for its IQ digital asset
Effect.ai project maybe become a service provider or could use DAPPAccounts in future
Vigor Project maybe integrates liquidOracles
And for sure there are many projects and ideas on development with LiquidApps team, Dapp Solutions team, Blockstarts team and others we don't know anything about yet...

Read some more interesting articles
- Who will achieve DeFi’s Holy Grail with Real-Time Gross Settlement, High Throughput and Long-Term Storage On The DAPP Network
- How could the DAPP Network evolve the Multi-Billion Cloud Computing Industry
- How DAPPNetwork will create distributed hubs of functionality, liquidity, and data across multiple decentralized networks - DAPP Network Is the perfect glue between chains
submitted by CryptoDae to CryptoCurrencies [link] [comments]

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