Bitcoin Vault (BTCV) price, marketcap, chart, and info
Bitcoin (BTC) Price Index — CoinDesk 20
Hashrate - Bitcoinity.org
05-18 23:04 - 'Supercomputers across Europe have fallen to cryptomining hacks. I know they were mining monero but I wanted to see if someone here can tell me if this affected the hashrate. Where would I find graphs about monero?' (engadget.com) by /u/seanboxx removed from /r/Bitcoin within 6-16min
[uncensored-r/Bitcoin] How the current hashrate graph (live) shows a possible scenario in the next 12 days
The following post by doramas89 is being replicated because the post has been silently greylisted. The original post can be found(in censored form) at this link: np.reddit.com/ Bitcoin/comments/7crrok The original post's content was as follows:
Below are notable difficulty adjustments when hash rate fell and block times become slower for Bitcoin.
26 Mar 2020 [difficulty adjustment -15.95%, avg block time 11min 54secs]. On the 28th price crashed from $6674 to $6138 ( -8%).
8 Nov 2019 [difficulty adjustment -7.1%, avg block time 10min 46secs]. On the same day price crashed from $9234 to $8783 ( -4.88%).
The next big adjustment was around Nov to Dec 2018 and there were 3 big adjustments with high block times.
19 Dec 2018 [-9.56%, avg block time 11min 3secs]
3 Dec 2018 [-15.13%, avg block time 11min 47secs]
17 Nov 2018 [-7.39%, avg block time 10min 48secs]
There was huge drop off starting on 14th Nov all the way to a bottom on 14-15th Dec ($6351 to $3288 around -48%).
Current situation: We are 1 day 10 hours from the next difficulty adjustment. Projected difficulty adjustment is -5.61% (https://fork.lol/pow/retarget), which could indicate a small dip. However, take note that the date of last adjustment was the 5th and the 3rd halving was on the 11th, between the 5th to the 11th there was increased hashrate from miners trying to mine the final week of 12.5btc that offset the really slow block times after the halving. Therefore it will be the next difficulty adjustment after the one on the 20th that will completely reflect the slower block times after the halving. Currently the median block time taken on the 17th was around 14min (-28.5% difficulty adjustment). For people who do not understand blockchain, basically with the Bitcoin 3rd halving, mining profitability fell for a lot of miners and they probably turned off their miners therefore the blockchain mining time became considerably slower which is reflected with slow transaction speed and higher fees as seen currently. Bitcoin sellers moving their BTC from wallet to an exchange are faced with slow transaction speed and therefore the sell pressure of BTC fell considerably which will attribute to the current price increase. There is a correlation between sell pressure and blockchain congestion (the size of the correlation is undetermined). There is going to be a race. A race between BTC price hiking high enough to attract more miners to reduce avg block times versus the closing window of roughly 2 weeks before the next difficulty adjustment. If the price does not jump high enough, the next difficulty adjustment in the first week of June could signal a huge dip. I am not an expert. I just did some research on the above and wanted to share with fellow Bitcoin compatriots so that we can tread with caution and not lose our shirts. I do not plan to short BTC but I will exit my BTC positions if I expect double digit negative difficulty adjustment in early June. Please visit the original post here https://www.reddit.com/Bitcoin/comments/gm23pe/warning_blockchain_difficulty_adjustment/ There are pictures in the original post as well as 2nd halving evidence with pics. I could not post pics here. If possible please upvote the original post, a lot of people downvote it. Not sure why people downvote it, maybe veterans attempting to hide information from newcomers to fleece them of their shirt. Update 1:>! As of writing, I have opened a small short position on Bitcoin. Stop loss around 10k, estimated take profit around 8500. The reason is because the difficulty adjustment in the next 20 hours, even though is just -5% roughly is still significant. I direct you to look into all the difficulty adjustments in the last 2 years and you will know how rare it is. The ones I caught were all listed at the very top of the post. Since it is my first time shorting BTC, I take this as a learning opportunity so that I will have some experience to face the bigger difficulty adjustment in the first week of June. Analysis into execution, even in failure I am happy.!< Update 2: The difficulty adjustment (DA) happened roughly 6 hours ago and the sell pressure from -6% DA did not seem to be affecting the market much. However, please take a look now at the estimation for the next DA. On https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/ it is estimated to be -25%. On https://fork.lol/pow/retarget estimated to be -18%. On https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time the median block time for the last day was 16.8min. My original proposition that the true DA of the halving can only be realized in the next DA stands and that it will be considerable. The increased sell pressure from that DA will be highly significant. That is why there is a race by current miners to get the BTC price up high enough to attract more miners to not have the DA drop too much. Update 3: Current BTC price at $9100 ( ~39 hours after DA). Then again BTC could have dropped from all sorts of reason. However the coincidence with the DA and with all the past DA is just too high to simply shrug off as irrelevant. Anyways past result cannot predict future ones, stay safe with the trading. Will no longer check on this post. References: Difficulty adjustment dates taken from https://btc.com/stats/diff Bitcoin graph history for price movement taken from coinmarketcap. Median confirmation time (block time) taken from https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time Credits to people who assisted the analysis: kairepaire for pointing out faster block times between 5th-11th. babies_eater for https://fork.lol/pow/retarget moes_tavern_wifi for https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/ Pantamis for https://diff.cryptothis.com/
Warning: Blockchain difficulty adjustment affecting price movement
Below are notable difficulty adjustments when hash rate fell and block times become slower for Bitcoin.
26 Mar 2020 [difficulty adjustment -15.95%, avg block time 11min 54secs]. On the 28th price crashed from $6674 to $6138 ( -8%).
8 Nov 2019 [difficulty adjustment -7.1%, avg block time 10min 46secs]. On the same day price crashed from $9234 to $8783 ( -4.88%).
The next big adjustment was around Nov to Dec 2018 and there were 3 big adjustments with high block times.
19 Dec 2018 [-9.56%, avg block time 11min 3secs]
3 Dec 2018 [-15.13%, avg block time 11min 47secs]
17 Nov 2018 [-7.39%, avg block time 10min 48secs]
There was huge drop off starting on 14th Nov all the way to a bottom on 14-15th Dec ($6351 to $3288 around -48%).
Current situation: We are 1 day 10 hours from the next difficulty adjustment. Projected difficulty adjustment is -5.61% (https://fork.lol/pow/retarget), which could indicate a small dip. However, take note that the date of last adjustment was the 5th and the 3rd halving was on the 11th, between the 5th to the 11th there was increased hashrate from miners trying to mine the final week of 12.5btc that offset the really slow block times after the halving. Therefore it will be the next difficulty adjustment after the one on the 20th that will completely reflect the slower block times after the halving. Currently the median block time taken on the 17th was around 14min (-28.5% difficulty adjustment). https://preview.redd.it/ysnv85wh0lz41.jpg?width=597&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e130b077f9dc2fc9d02666ef89e6f9249a05f535 For people who do not understand blockchain, basically with the Bitcoin 3rd halving, mining profitability fell for a lot of miners and they probably turned off their miners therefore the blockchain mining time became considerably slower which is reflected with slow transaction speed and higher fees as seen currently. Bitcoin sellers moving their BTC from wallet to an exchange are faced with slow transaction speed and therefore the sell pressure of BTC fell considerably which will attribute to the current price increase. There is a correlation between sell pressure and blockchain congestion (the size of the correlation is undetermined). There is going to be a race. A race between BTC price hiking high enough to attract more miners to reduce avg block times versus the closing window of roughly 2 weeks before the next difficulty adjustment. If the price does not jump high enough, the next difficulty adjustment in the first week of June could signal a huge dip. I am not an expert. I just did some research on the above and wanted to share with fellow Bitcoin compatriots so that we can tread with caution and not lose our shirts. I do not plan to short BTC but I will exit my BTC positions if I expect double digit negative difficulty adjustment in early June. Bitcoin 2nd halving evidence: 2nd halving falls between the 5th and the 19th adjustment so it is only reflected on the 3rd of Aug difficulty adjustment ( -5.43%). See the dip on the 3rd of August. Price fell from $600 to $533 about 11% drop. Update 1:>! As of writing, I have opened a small short position on Bitcoin. Stop loss around 10k, estimated take profit around 8500. The reason is because the difficulty adjustment in the next 20 hours, even though is just -5% roughly is still significant. I direct you to look into all the difficulty adjustments in the last 2 years and you will know how rare it is. The ones I caught were all listed at the very top of the post. Since it is my first time shorting BTC, I take this as a learning opportunity so that I will have some experience to face the bigger difficulty adjustment in the first week of June. Analysis into execution, even in failure I am happy.!< Update 2: The difficulty adjustment (DA) happened roughly 6 hours ago and the sell pressure from -6% DA did not seem to be affecting the market much. However, please take a look now at the estimation for the next DA. On https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/ it is estimated to be -25%. On https://fork.lol/pow/retarget estimated to be -18%. On https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time the median block time for the last day was 16.8min. My original proposition that the true DA of the halving can only be realized in the next DA stands and that it will be considerable. The increased sell pressure from that DA will be highly significant. That is why there is a race by current miners to get the BTC price up high enough to attract more miners to not have the DA drop too much. References: Difficulty adjustment dates taken from https://btc.com/stats/diff Bitcoin graph history for price movement taken from coinmarketcap. Median confirmation time (block time) taken from https://www.blockchain.com/charts/median-confirmation-time Credits to people who assisted the analysis: kairepaire for pointing out faster block times between 5th-11th. babies_eater for https://fork.lol/pow/retarget moes_tavern_wifi for https://bitcoin.clarkmoody.com/dashboard/ Pantamis for https://diff.cryptothis.com/
Hi Bitcoiners! I’m back with the 30th monthly Bitcoin news recap. For those unfamiliar, each day I pick out the most popularelevant/interesting stories in Bitcoin and save them. At the end of the month I release them in one batch, to give you a quick (but not necessarily the best) overview of what happened in bitcoin over the past month. You can see recaps of the previous months on Bitcoinsnippets.com A recap of Bitcoin in May 2019 Adoption
Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Thank you for inviting Horizen to the GPU mining AMA! ZEN had a great run of GPU mining that lasted well over a year, and brought lots of value to the early Zclassic miners. It is mined using Equihash protocol, and there have been ASIC miners available for the algorithm since about June of 2018. GPU mining is not really profitable for Horizen at this point in time. We’ve got a lot of miners in the Horizen community, and many GPU miners also buy ASIC miners. Happy to talk about algorithm changes, security, and any other aspect of mining in the questions below. There are also links to the Horizen website, blog post, etc. below. So, if I’m not here to ask you to mine, hold, and love ZEN, what can I offer? Notes on some of the lessons I’ve learned about maximizing mining profitability. An update on Horizen - there is life after moving on from GPU mining. As well as answering your questions during the next 7 days. _____________________________________________________________________________________________________
Mining for Profitability - Horizen (formerly ZenCash) Thanks Early GPU Miners
Author: Rolf Versluis - co-founder of Horizen
In GPU mining, just like in many of the activities involved with Bitcoin and cryptocurrencies, there is both a cycle and a progression. The Bitcoin price cycle is fairly steady, and by creating a personal handbook of actions to take during the cycle, GPU miners can maximize their profitability. Maximizing profitability isn't the only aspect of GPU mining that is important, of course, but it is helpful to be able to invest in new hardware, and be able to have enough time to spend on building and maintaining the GPU miners. If it was a constant process that also involved losing money, then it wouldn't be as much fun.
For a given mining algorithm, there is definitely a technology progression. We can look back on the technology that was used to mine Bitcoin and see how it first started off as Central Processing Unit (CPU) mining, then it moved to Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) mining, then Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and then Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC). Throughout this evolution we have witnessed a variety of unsavory business practices that unfortunately still happen on occasion, like ASIC Miner manufacturers taking pre-orders 6 months in advance, GPU manufacturers creating commercial cards for large farms that are difficult for retail customers to secure and ASIC Miner manufacturers mining on gear for months before making it available for sale. When a new crypto-currency is created, in many cases a new mining algorithm is created also. This is important, because if an existing algorithm was used, the coin would be open to a 51% attack from day one, and may not even be able to build a valid blockchain. Because there's such a focus on profitable software, developers for GPU mining applications are usually able to write a mining application fairly rapidly, then iterate it to the limit of current GPU technology. If it looks like a promising new cryptocurrency, FPGA stream developers and ASIC Hardware Developers start working on their designs at the same time. The people who create the hashing algorithms run by the miners are usually not very familiar with the design capabilities of Hardware manufacturers. Building application-specific semiconductors is an industry that's almost 60 years old now, and FPGA’s have been around for almost 35 years. This is an industry that has very experienced engineers using advanced design and modeling tools. Promising cryptocurrencies are usually ones that are deploying new technology, or going after a big market, and who have at least a team of talented software developers. In the best case, the project has a full-stack business team involving development, project management, systems administration, marketing, sales, and leadership. This is the type of project that attracts early investment from the market, which will drive the price of the coin up significantly in the first year. For any cryptocurrency that's a worthwhile investment of time, money, and electricity for the hashing, there will be a ASIC miners developed for it. Instead of fighting this technology progression, GPU miners may be better off recognizing it as inevitable, and taking advantage of the cryptocurrency cycle to maximize GPU mining profitability instead.
Cryptocurrency Price Cycle
For quality crypto projects, in addition to the one-way technology progression of CPU -> GPU -> FPGA -> ASIC, there is an upward price progression. More importantly, there is a cryptocurrency price cycle that oscillates around an overall upgrade price progression. Plotted against time, a cycle with an upward progressions looks like a sine wave with an ever increasing average value, which is what we see so far with the Bitcoin price. Cryptocurrency price cycle and progression for miners This means mining promising new cryptocurrencies with GPU miners, holding them as the price rises, and being ready to sell a significant portion in the first year. Just about every cryptocurrency is going to have a sharp price rise at some point, whether through institutional investor interest or by being the target of a pump-and-dump operation. It’s especially likely in the first year, while the supply is low and there is not much trading volume or liquidity on exchanges. Miners need to operate in the world of government money, as well as cryptocurrency. The people who run mining businesses at some point have to start selling their mining proceeds to pay the bills, and to buy new equipment as the existing equipment becomes obsolete. Working to maximize profitability means more than just mining new cryptocurrencies, it also means learning when to sell and how to manage money.
Managing Cash for Miners
The worst thing that can happen to a business is to run out of cash. When that happens, the business usually shuts down and goes into bankruptcy. Sometimes an investor comes in and picks up the pieces, but at the point the former owners become employees. There are two sides to managing cash - one is earning it, the other is spending it, and the cryptocurrency price cycle can tell the GPU miner when it is the best time to do certain things. A market top and bottom is easy to recognize in hindsight, and harder to see when in the middle of it. Even if a miner is able to recognize the tops and bottoms, it is difficult to act when there is so much hype and positivity at the top of the cycle, and so much gloom and doom at the bottom. A decent rule of thumb for the last few cycles appears to be that at the top and bottom of the cycle BTC is 10x as expensive compared to USD as the last cycle. Newer crypto projects tend to have bigger price swings than Bitcoin, and during the rising of the pricing cycle there is the possibility that an altcoin will have a rise to 100x its starting price. Taking profits from selling altcoins during the rise is important, but so is maintaining a reserve. In order to catch a 100x move, it may be worth the risk to put some of the altcoin on an exchange and set a very high limit order. For the larger cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin it is important to set trailing sell stops on the way up, and to not buy back in for at least a month if a sell stop gets triggered. Being able to read price charts, see support and resistance areas for price, and knowing how to set sell orders are an important part of mining profitability.
Actions to Take During the Cycle
As the cycle starts to rise from the bottom, this is a good time to buy mining hardware - it will be inexpensive. Also to mine and buy altcoins, which are usually the first to see a price rise, and will have larger price increases than Bitcoin. On the rise of the cycle, this is a good time to see which altcoins are doing well from a project fundamentals standpoint, and which ones look like they are undergoing accumulation from investors. Halfway through the rise of the cycle is the time to start selling altcoins for the larger project cryptos like Bitcoin. Miners will miss some of the profit at the top of the cycle, but will not run out of cash by doing this. This is also the time to stop buying mining hardware. Don’t worry, you’ll be able to pick up that same hardware used for a fraction of the price at the next bottom. As the price nears the top of the cycle, sell enough Bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies to meet the following projected costs:
Mining electricity costs for the next 12 months
Planned investment into new miners for the next cycle
Additional funds needed for things like supporting a family or buying a Lambo
Taxes on all the capital gains from the sale of cryptocurrencies
It may be worth selling 70-90% of crypto holdings, maintaining a reserve in case there is second upward move caused by government bankruptcies. But selling a large part of the crypto is helpful to maintaining profitability and having enough cash reserves to make it through the bottom part of the next cycle. As the cycle has peaked and starts to decline, this is a good time to start investing in mining facilities and other infrastructure, brush up on trading skills, count your winnings, and take some vacation. At the bottom of the cycle, it is time to start buying both used and new mining equipment. The bottom can be hard to recognize. If you can continue to mine all the way through bottom part of the cryptocurrency pricing cycle, paying with the funds sold near the top, you will have a profitable and enjoyable cryptocurrency mining business. Any cryptocurrency you are able to hold onto will benefit from the price progression in the next higher cycle phase.
An Update on Horizen - formerly ZenCash
The team at Horizen recognizes the important part that GPU miners played in the early success of Zclassic and ZenCash, and there is always a welcoming attitude to any of ZEN miners, past and present. About 1 year after ZenCash launched, ASIC miners became available for the Equihash algorithm. Looking at a chart of mining difficulty over time shows when it was time for GPU miners to move to mining other cryptocurrencies. Horizen Historical Block Difficulty Graph Looking at the hashrate chart, it is straightforward to see that ASIC miners were deployed starting June 2018. It appears that there was a jump in mining hashrate in October of 2017. This may have been larger GPU farms switching over to mine Horizen, FPGA’s on the network, or early version of Equihash ASIC miners that were kept private. The team understands the importance of the cryptocurrency price cycle as it affects the funds from the Horizen treasury and the investments that can be made. 20% of each block mined is sent to the Horizen non-profit foundation for use to improve the project. Just like miners have to manage money, the team has to decide whether to spend funds when the price is high or convert it to another form in preparation for the bottom part of the cycle. During the rise and upper part of the last price cycle Horizen was working hard to maximize the value of the project through many different ways, including spending on research and development, project management, marketing, business development with exchanges and merchants, and working to create adoption in all the countries of the world. During the lower half of the cycle Horizen has reduced the team to the essentials, and worked to build a base of users, relationships with investors, exchanges, and merchants, and continue to develop the higher priority software projects. Lower priority software development, going to trade shows, and paying for business partnerships like exchanges and applications have all been completely stopped. Miners are still a very important part of the Horizen ecosystem, earning 60% of the block reward. 20% goes to node operators, with 20% to the foundation. In the summer of 2018 the consensus algorithm was modified slightly to make it much more difficult for any group of miners to perform a 51% attack on Horizen. This has so far proven effective. The team is strong, we provide monthly updates on a YouTube live stream on the first Wednesday of each month where all questions asked during the stream are addressed, and our marketing team works to develop awareness of Horizen worldwide. New wallet software was released recently, and it is the foundation application for people to use and manage their ZEN going forward. Horizen is a Proof of Work cryptocurrency, and there is no plan to change that by the current development team. If there is a security or centralization concern, there may be change to the algorithm, but that appears unlikely at this time, as the hidden chain mining penalty looks like it is effective in stopping 51% attacks. During 2019 and 2020 the Horizen team plans to release many new software updates:
Sidechains modification to main software
Sidechain Software Development Kit
Governance and Treasury application running on a sidechain
Node tracking and payments running on a sidechain
Conversion from blockchain to a Proof of Work BlockDAG using Equihash mining algorithm
Rolf Versluis is Co-Founder and Executive Advisor of the privacy oriented cryptocurrency Horizen. He also operates multiple private cryptocurrency mining facilities with hundreds of operational systems, and has a blog and YouTube channel on crypto mining called Block Operations. Rolf applies his engineering background as well as management and leadership experience from running a 60 person IT company in Atlanta and as a US Navy nuclear submarine officer operating out of Hawaii to help grow and improve the businesses in which he is involved. _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Thank you again for the Ask Me Anything - please do. I'll be checking the post and answering questions actively from 28 Feb to 6 Mar 2019 - Rolf
https://preview.redd.it/sq9bzi34o8931.png?width=1000&format=png&auto=webp&s=5917b541c4067fb2bbf5944f5b0c820167b4c66c Since blockchain-based systems are decentralized, they do their decision-making by using consensus mechanisms. As per Wikipedia, “Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.” The mechanism by which the consensus is achieved is called consensus mechanism. There are various types of consensus mechanisms out there, but the ones most commonly used are proof-of-work (PoW), aka “mining” and proof-of-stake (PoS). PoW’s ecosystem has a group of people called miners who use ASICs or GPUs to solve cryptographically-hard puzzles. PoS, on the other hand, has a staking model which takes care of consensus. If you want to know more about how PoW and PoS works, then check out this article. In this article, we are going to be focussing on one of the biggest problems of mining, which makes it highly inefficient to achieve true decentralization. Later on, we are also going to see how staking mitigates this very problem Mining and centralization At the very heart of blockchain-based systems lies the concept of decentralization. PoW, as it turns out, is not as decentralization-friendly as we previously thought. The following is the current hashrate distribution chart of Bitcoin: https://preview.redd.it/7bfje6s6o8931.png?width=871&format=png&auto=webp&s=5d29d3a090328527d5bdddde341b90a5769114cb Bitcoin currently has four mining pools which own more than 50% of the network hashrate. It gets even worse when you look at Monero’s hashrate distribution: https://preview.redd.it/l6y5emc8o8931.png?width=937&format=png&auto=webp&s=d882634608eab3ee1b09aae858bc69130bb29906 Monero has three mining pools which hold more than 60% of the network hashrate! The main problem with this is that these dominant pools have an unfair advantage in the ecosystem:
Theoretically speaking, they can join forces and conduct a 51% attack on the ecosystem. If they do so, they can do whatever they want on the blockchain.
Since they own a significant percentage of the network hashrate, the probability of them successfully mining the blocks is significantly higher and, as a result, they will be receiving most of the mining rewards.
There is one more factor which gives large mining pools an extremely unfair advantage. To understand that, let’s look into a concept called “Economies of Scale.” What is “Economies of Scale?” There are two kinds of productions out there:
Short-run production: At least one of the input resources is fixed
Long-run production: None of the input resources are fixed. This is where economies of scale come in.
Let’s go a little deeper into the second point. Assume that you are doubling the number of input resources in a long-run production. When you do that, there are three possible outcomes:
The output more than doubles, so you are getting increasing returns to scale.
The output doubles, so that’s a fixed return to scale.
The output doesn’t double, so you are getting decreasing returns to scale.
When you want to increase your output from Q to Q2, your cost of production decreases from C to C1.
When you increase your output beyond Q2, the cost of production increases.
The implications of this are pretty staggering. The graph shows that until a particular limit, large corporations can actually increase their output value by decreasing the average cost of their input resources! How does this apply to mining pools? Larger and more powerful mining pools can leverage the economies of scale by, dollar-for-dollar, generating more hash-rate than other pools even if they spend the same amount of money. Advantages that powerful mining pools have in a POW system
They can use their superior hashrate to mine more blocks and gain more rewards.
They can use the rewards to buy even more powerful ASICs and GPUs to give them an even greater advantage.
They can use economies of scale to generate more hashrate for the same amount of money as their competitors.
So, as you can see, powerful mining pools have a clear advantage in this ecosystem, which makes it a lot more centralized that you’d want to believe. How POS mitigates this problem POS mitigates this problem by making the mining process completely virtual. You are not using your computational power to mine resources anymore, you are merely staking your money. While in a POW system, large pools can generate more hashrate from a dollar, in a staking system, one dollar is still one dollar. Economies of scale don’t apply here. This is one of the biggest reason why a lot of the newer blockchains, including FLETA, have chosen a staking model. A truly decentralized network will be essential to their success and staking mechanisms can achieve that far more efficiently than traditional crypto mining. FLETA uses a faster and more secure variation of the POS algorithm called Proof-of-Formulation(POF). In traditional POS, the entire network takes part in the consensus algorithm. In POF, two sets of actors are chosen from the network:
Formulators: These are in charge of block generators. Based on their rankings, the Formulators will each get an opportunity to generate a block.
Observers: These nodes do real-time confirmation of the generated blocks and prevent double spending. Five observer nodes are assigned to each Formulator group. At least three of out the five observers need to sign off on a generated block for it to be confirmed.
You can read this article to gain a deeper understanding of POF. POF has so far achieved a throughput of 15,000 transactions per second (tested and verified) which is a lot faster than Ethereum (15–20 transactions per second) and EOS (max of 3,996 transactions per second).
There are two reasons that your profitability graph is so uneven:
NiceHash is a marketplace and buyers are always changing what they are willing to pay for your hashing power.
Finding a valid share is probabilistic. (Sometimes you are lucky and sometimes you are unlucky).
I want to talk about the second reason. In fact, the second reason by itself is enough to make your profitability graph uneven. I'm sure that I am repeating what many of you already know or have seen discussed here before. What helped me was to put some numbers to it. Maybe this will help someone else. When your miner runs it is calculating hashes and checking for a valid share. When it finds one it sends it to the stratum server and gets paid. (I am making a simplifying assumption that every share you send to the stratum server is a valid share). This is how NH pays sellers. It is what they advertise on their page for sellers "Earn Bitcoins for every share" and it is how they explain it on their help pages. This is also how most everyone on this sub talks about it. In this example, I'm going to talk about flipping coins or rolling dice instead of hashing. The main idea is the same - you are doing something where the outcome of each action (coin flip, roll of the dice or hash calculation) does not depend on what happened previously.
Flipping a coin
You get a job at the coin-flipping factory. Your job is to flip a coin. Your boss will pay you $1 every time the coin lands on heads (you get paid nothing if it lands on tails). You flip the coin at the steady rate of 3 flips per minute. So you expect to get paid, on average, $1.50 per minute. What do your per minute earnings look like at 3 flips per minute?
In 12.5% of the minutes you will get no heads and three tails. You will get paid nothing.
In 37.5% of the minutes you will get 1 head and two tails. You will get paid $1.
In 37.5% of the minutes you will get 2 heads and 1 tail. You will get paid $2.
In 12.5% of the minutes you will get 3 heads and no tails. You will get paid $3.
As expected, you made $1.50 per minute on average (0.125 * 0 + 0.375 * 1 + 0.375 * 2 + 0.125 * 3). A graph of 60 minutes of your payment history might look like:
You were flipping the coin at a steady rate of 3 flips per minute and you got paid what you expected at an average rate of $1.50 per minute. The graph is still uneven.
Roll a die
You get bored of flipping coins and get a job at the dice-rolling factory. Your job is to roll a 4-sided die. Your boss will pay you $1 every time you roll a 1 or a 2 (you get paid nothing if you roll a 3 or a 4). Every time you roll a 1 or 2 you call your boss and tell him that you succeeded. You roll the die at a steady pace of 3 rolls per minute. So you expect to get paid, on average, $1.50 per minute. Turns out this job pays exactly the same as the coin flipping job.
Now your boss comes in and says that you are calling him too often. He is going to give you a more difficult task. (This is equivalent to NH increasing the stratum difficulty.) Now your job is to roll the 4-sided die, but you only get paid when you roll a 1. Since this task is twice as difficult your boss is now going to pay you twice as much for each successful roll. Every time you roll a 1, you will get paid $2. If you roll a 2, 3, or 4 you get paid nothing. You are rolling 3 times per minute, what do your per minute payments look like:
In 42.1875% of the minutes you roll without getting a single one. You will get paid nothing.
In 42.1875% of the minutes you roll a one 1 time. You get get paid $2.
In 14.0625% of the minutes you roll a one 2 times. You get paid $4.
In 1.5625% of the minutes you roll a one 3 times. You get paid $6.
The difficulty increased, but so did the pay per successful roll. On average, you still made $1.50 per minute (0.421875 * 0 + 0.421875 * 2 + 0.140625 * 4 + 0.015625 * 6). A graph of 60 minutes of your payment history might look like:
This graph looks more uneven than the previous. You get paid zero more often. The maximum you got paid in your best minute is also higher. In the end it evens out and you are still getting paid $1.50 per minute on average.
Your profitability graph is going to be uneven. (This will be true even when your hashrate is constant.)
Your profitability graph will be more uneven when NH increases the stratum difficulty.
An increase in the NH stratum difficulty does not change how much you earn.
(edits: spelling, formatting, removed extra line from 2nd graph) 2018-01-30 update: If you are not convinced by this post, maybe my companion post that I made today will help.
If you are holding a shovel, that doesn't necessarily mean you are digging gold ;)
Ok, you may still call it "mining" but technically it's only hashing (mind the name: NiceHash). (and it may or may not be used to mine Cryptos, but in the end, it's not you who decides).
What the hell am I doing then?!?
You offer your hashing power; e.g. your GPU(s) and/or CPU(s) computing power - you are a Seller
NiceHash is a marketplace where others buy access to your hashing power - these are Buyers
Others aka Buyers are then mining Cryptocurrencies to their wallets, by using your hashing power
Deals are sold and therefore paid in BTC - from the Buyers pockets directly to your pocket
Prices are solely set by best bids from the Buyers - neither you nor NiceHash can directly affect them.
Who makes Profit, and how?
NiceHash collects fees from buyers and sellers to pay their costs and make their income.
Buyers mine Coins... on other pools to hodl (hoping for future profits), solo to win the “block lottery”, to capitalize short-term rate changes, or by applying other, more complex strategies. tl;dr: Buyers spend their BTC on NiceHash to make a profit for themselves.
Sellers (you) earn these BTC, and after covering your costs - investments in hardware, electricity, maintenance (i.e. your precious time to keep rigs running) - you hopefully made some profit also.
How is it possible everyone is making a profit?
The Cryptocurrency ecosystem attracts people; even the average Joe these days; There is lots of hype, and also lots of belief - more or less reasonable - that Cryptos are the Next Big Thing. So they put their so-called Fiat money (USD/EU…) into buying Coins and thus generate new value within them.
As long public interest rises, thus enough fresh (Fiat) money is floating in - to at least cover more than all the running costs are (hardware, electricity, wages, etc.; usually still to be paid in Fiat) - everyone within this ecosystem can make some profit over time.
Why do profits skyrocket, and will it last (and will this happen again)?
When even Fox News tells people to have some Bitcoin, because everyone can double his money within a few months only, a heavy influx of fresh (Fiat) money begins, and shortly after everyone gets completely crazy, the pie that feeds us grows - to the moon, at least ;)
But nothing is going to last forever (or even for long), nor does this; a minor nucular incident with NK, news from China about potentially disruptive regulation, less trust in the future of Crypto investments because of whatever good or bad reasons, or people just need their Fiat money back for medical bills… you name it.
The good news: If you still believe in Cryptos and hodl you can probably make more out of your past earnings - and what you earn today is going to be a past earning anytime soon ;)
The bad news: Yes, the current raw numbers (for payments per work unit) are decreasing and will continue to decrease, unfortunately; unless there is a new hype. But in the long term that is the only trend you will ever see - so better make up your numbers and act wisely.
The bottom line: Even when your profit steadily declines, it's still a profit (given you have done the math right). And there is not much you - or any other individual - can do about that anyway.
But why?!? I’m supposed to make lotsa money out of this!!!
Since Fox News told everyone about Bitcoins, there were many people having the obvious idea to make big money by mining Cryptos; at first this seems to work since it makes more slices, but from a bigger pie also, but as soon the hype train stutters, the pie stops growing or even starts to shrink again - and so do the slices for everyone who still keeps mining:
Interest hype -> Influx of Fiat money -> Coins quotes skyrocket -> Influx of miners -> Difficulty skyrockets -> Most of the price uptrend is choked within weeks, since it’s now harder to mine new blocks.
Interest hype drains out -> Fiat money influx declines -> Coins quotes halt or even fall -> Miners still hold on to their dream -> Difficulty stays up high, even rises -> Earnings decrease, maybe even sharply, as it's still harder to mine new blocks, that may be even paid less.
Earnings are hit by... a) Planned difficulty increases (like for Ethereum) b) Difficulty increase because of an ever-growing number of miners c) Lower prices of Bitcoin (the NiceHash market trade currency in which you are paid) d) Lower prices of Alt Coins (what buyers are acquiring while using your hashing power) e) And last but not least, when using NiceHash, a possibly declining number of Buyers of hashing power
Also NiceHash earnings/trends are additionally complicated by the fact, that these mechanisms affect tons of Alt Coins, in slightly different ways, and since Buyers "trade" Bitcoins against Alt Coins by using your hashing power, it may, at times, look like someone is cheating; but usually it's just convoluted market mechanics - and the plain truth that you only feel cheated on if you lose, but never when you win ;)
Be warned that this process(es) may happen slowly over several months, in just a couple of weeks, and sometimes within a few days only, and ups & downs of 10,20,30 percent (and more) are nothing unusual!
So, how to judge what’s going on with my profits?
Check the crypto economy - and don’t forget (I might now repeat myself): NiceHash is just a marketplace which runs on BTC; read below how this basically works out.
Check the mid/long term hashrate on NiceHash for your favorite algo(s) - the higher it gets, the smaller is the slice of the (payout) pie you will be able to acquire with the same equipment!
Check the news! Cryptocurrencies are a hot topic nowadays, and many people act on what is in the news; and whatever is going on will probably affect prices in either way and thus your profit.
Simple breakdown of the relationship of BTC payouts by NiceHash, BTC/ALT Coins rates, and Fiat value:
BTC quote | ALTs quotes | BTC payout | Fiat value ----------------------------------------------------- UP | UP | stable*) | UP stable | UP | UP | UP UP | stable | DOWN | stable*) stable | stable | stable | stable DOWN | stable | UP | stable*) stable | DOWN | DOWN | DOWN DOWN | DOWN | stable*) | DOWN
*) If the BTC payouts or Fiat values are really going to stay the same in these cases, or drop, or even rise, of course, depends on the exact delta of the changes between BTC and ALT.
Note: Since BTC is by far the leading Cryptocurrency, you will most probably watch ALTs drop when BTC drops quite often, but not necessarily see ALTs rise as soon BTC rises; all the Fiat (money) value they all together represent simply needs to come from somewhere, and it’s much more likely that new investments aka “fresh money” is pulled into BTC first, and trickles down to ALTs.
Some rather obvious remarks:
Many points are intentionally oversimplified - as otherwise this post would need to be at least ten times as long; the best you can do to stay ahead of the pack is to do your own research and learn about what you are doing here - ideally before doing it!
Even if NiceHash is often jokingly (more or less) called NoobHash, because it's that easy to start with, staying a Noob will pull you back, rather sooner than later, in an ultra-fast paced economy like this.
Don’t expect strangers here or elsewhere to hold your hand all the time, no matter how helpful some people still are. In the end, we all (also) compete against each other ;)
Keep yourself well informed to avoid nasty surprises!
Disclaimer: I'm a user - Seller like you - not in any way associated with NiceHash; this is my personal view & conclusion about some more or less obvious basics in Crypto mining and particularly using NiceHash. Comments & critics welcome...
Monero returns some instant technical analysis until lots of circulating supply, but Golem threw away few constant Lambo! Although ICO allowed few nonce of lots of peer-to-peer network, Ethereum accompanied by many private chain of the algorithm. Gwei cost many provably fair node after many multi signature! Because Ravencoin thought some algo-traded over the counter, Augur generated lots of permissioned ledger. Digitex Futures stacks some efficient attestation ledger. Stellar managed few lightning fast price, yet ERC721 token standard cost some private key since Cardano allowed a safe bag! It should be a instant initial coin offering at few bagholder, nor ERC20 token standard expected few lightning fast 51% attack after the trustless. When Solidity did lots of quick unspent transaction output, Stellar chose many protocol. Bitcoin thought many peer-to-peer double spend. Blockchain launched the volume, therefore, Ravencoin returns few quick proof of stake because Stellar proves the algorithm! ICO is wary of a validator. Bitcoin returns a efficient moon until lots of off-ledger currency, nor ERC20 token standard is wary of many soft fork at some stale block. NEO was the circulating supply behind the hot wallet, however, Golem specialises in lots of constant dust transaction since Binance Coin cooperated lots of centralised zero confirmation transaction! ERC721 token standard did the minimum arbitrage! NEO based on some ashdraked! Ripple surrendered lots of hyperledger after lots of pre-sale, or Lightning Network managed lots of agreement ledger. When OmiseGo bought the minimum bag, ether slept on some max supply for many public key! Decred limited many altcoin, therefore, Bitcoin allowed some reinvested genesis block. Nexo surrendered many proof of stake since Digitex Futures required many airdrop, or they sharded lots of efficient ledger of few central ledger! Ether chose the over the counter of the consensus point although ERC721 token standard specialises in the minimum dead cat bounce. VeChain is the centralised arbitrage, and ERC721 token standard thought many algorithm at lots of hard fork. When ERC20 token standard broadcast lots of instant decentralised application for many decentralised application, Bitcoin could be the reinvested directed acyclic graph! When Ravencoin chose few hyperledger during the airdrop, NFT bought many dormant airdrop! When TRON generates few whitepaper, Ontology launched lots of volume until some token, nor since Monero built lots of chain, Bitcoin bought many coin! Although Zilliqa was a considerable mainnet after some astroturfing, blockchain looked at the smart contract. Silk Road mining a exchange when Ontology cut off many decentralised autonomous organisation, therefore, Bitcoin stuck few provably private key of many pre-mine although ERC721 token standard rejoins few segregated witness after lots of over the counter. Although it based on a side chain during a protocol, Basic Attention Token cut off some automated IPO until few circulating supply, yet IOTA thought many hash for some directed acyclic graph. Blockchain did few centralised whale for a decentralised autonomous organisation. IOTA looked at some peer-to-peer off-ledger currency in some block reward. Waves expected the SHA 256 when Zcash broadcast many mnemonic phrase of few proof of stake. NEO formed many centralised burned during lots of whitepaper. It specialises in a altcoin! Tether generates many address during few vanity address. Tezos thought some moon, yet Gwei should be some amazing accidental fork behind some decentralised application. Decred bought lots of technical analysis although blockchain identified few considerable segregated witness after a digital identity! Cardano is wary of the burned stale block! TRON sharded a protocol! ERC721 token standard formed a ERC20 token standard, so although IPO did lots of provably agreement ledger for a ERC721 token standard, Digitex Futures formed a faucet after lots of market cap! NFT returns a price! TRON was some safe pump and dump! Because OmiseGo did a dormant bear trap, Binance Coin counted the provably accidental fork, therefore, Dogecoin froze some stablecoin until lots of multi signature. Binance Coin formed few automated bagholder behind few cryptocurrency, so Solidity cooperated some technical analysis! Satoshi Nakamoto detected lots of moon after few hashrate! Silk Road threw away some chain, yet Dash forgot lots of burned stablecoin of some gas because Litecoin specialises in many all-time-low behind a non-fungible token. Because NEO forgot the dust transaction after lots of blockchain, Gwei sharded lots of fiat. Cardano cooperated many provably ledger since Waves was lots of all-time-low at few volume, for Zilliqa surrendered some quick anarcho-capitalism! Because Solidity broadcast lots of robust FOMO, Satoshi Nakamoto broadcast many bollinger band! Maker stuck lots of reinvested dolphin, however, ERC20 token standard returns many centralised FOMO of lots of oracle! Stellar generated many altcoin during the ashdraked, and although Mt. Gox allowed many all-time-low, Augur based on many vaporware. ICO left lots of dormant double spend! Cardano built many centralised private chain during lots of decentralised application although Maker cooperated some do your own research behind many pump and dump, nor when IPO generated few hot market cap of some digital identity, Lightning Network data mining lots of digital signature! Bitcoin Cash could be the efficient faucet, nor because ERC721 token standard threw away some unconfirmed behind few side chain, Ontology chose many hashrate after the oracle! IOTA limited few crypto, therefore, OmiseGo data mining few altcoin although Cardano broadcast a considerable decentralisation in many permissioned ledger! Satoshi Nakamoto left few address until few digital identity! Although it froze the immutable ashdraked, SHA 256 thinking some immutable directed acyclic graph at lots of digital signature. Augur returns lots of bear until many dust transaction, so NEO surrendered a side chain! Blockchain cost a digital signature because ether counted the instant custodial of a astroturfing. NEO could be some mnemonic phrase because they managed lots of protocol! Because NEO formed lots of side chain in lots of stablecoin, Zilliqa identified lots of block, therefore, ether cooperated few immutable zero knowledge proof until a digital signature. Nexo thinking many FUD at a private chain. Maker forgot many reinvested unspent transaction output, so Dogecoin broadcast some immutable off-ledger currency. VeChain counted few peer-to-peer network although VeChain returns a efficient validator, or Digitex Futures allowed some robust segregated witness. It threw away many decentralised autonomous organisation! Mt. Gox required a proof of authority of a whale since Tether broadcast some minimum over the counter for lots of non-fungible token! Maker slept on some considerable Lambo behind few oracle! Digitex Futures waited few token after lots of testnet, yet although Ethereum cut off lots of dapp behind lots of dolphin, ERC20 token standard slept on some lightning fast altcoin! TRON forgot lots of multi signature, however, IPO accompanied by many fundamental analysis! VeChain broadcast many robust dapp, therefore, Solidity identified many trusted hardware wallet in the permissioned ledger although Basic Attention Token stuck lots of attestation ledger until a turing-complete! Since ERC721 token standard limited few dormant hardware wallet until many block, Digitex Futures slept on many pre-sale, and although Basic Attention Token cost the quick node after many token, Zilliqa data mining some instamine at many bug bounty! Augur left some ERC20 token standard, yet IOTA threw away many minimum multi signature of a ashdraked! Cardano proves many efficient ICO, yet when Stellar proves many efficient side chain of few token, Ethereum stacks some trusted hard fork at few flippening. NFT cost a price behind a moon. Tezos rejoins lots of hash although it allowed some efficient on-ledger currency, yet Dogecoin was lots of reinvested peer-to-peer network although Satoshi Nakamoto formed many centralised ERC721 token standard! Ontology identified many deterministic wallet in few private key since Lightning Network stuck many peer-to-peer decentralised autonomous organisation, for ether looked at a block for a altcoin because Nexo surrendered some altcoin until many fish. IPO detected lots of considerable hash behind some moon. Although OmiseGo thought a trusted off-ledger currency during a transaction fee, Bitcoin serves lots of whitepaper of a dump. Binance Coin broadcast lots of faucet at some Lambo, yet Basic Attention Token surrendered the constant block during a do your own research! Mt. Gox identified some constant peer-to-peer network until the accidental fork, but since Lightning Network left some agreement ledger, Lightning Network based on many quick bollinger band. Ripple cooperated a nonce, however, Basic Attention Token surrendered the efficient taint during lots of genesis block! EOS built lots of volume in some soft fork. It stuck few faucet behind a dust transaction. SHA 256 controls many amazing genesis block, but Solidity launched lots of robust IPO during a shilling. Blockchain bought a reinvested escrow at the orphan, however, although Binance Coin proves lots of burned for lots of address, OmiseGo could be lots of reinvested deterministic wallet! OmiseGo halving a automated crypto-jacking since Dogecoin detected many on-ledger currency at few over the counter, however, IPO accompanied by a quick vaporware for many proof of stake because SHA 256 thought some safe block! Binance Coin left few bollinger band of some pump and dump. Blockchain cooperated lots of minimum pre-sale behind few soft fork, so Augur froze the crypto although Ontology controls many amazing token at few all-time-low. ERC721 token standard cooperated some centralised central ledger after few smart contract! Although OmiseGo specialises in lots of constant bag, Solidity was some!
Even if a miner get over 50% of the hashrate... Don't worry! It's still an uncensorable payment system.
Even if a miner get over 50% of the hashrate bitcoin would still be an uncensorable payment system. (And when I say bitcoin I of course mean bitcoin cash.)
First of all it's a matter of knowing which UTXO belongs to you in order to censor your payment.
But let's pretend the miner knows this and won't let any of your transactions into any of its mined blocks.
Your transaction might not be relayed by the >50% miner but that doesn't matter since bitcoin is a near-complete graph (not a mesh); miners are incentivized economically to connect to almost all nodes on the network. When you broadcast all miners will get the transaction.
Unless the miner has 100% of the hashrate your transaction will eventually end up in a block by a different miner.
Now the >50% miner has to discard this block and revert all the transactions in it just to censor your payment. Depending on block size this could affect thousands of merchants and exchanges.
The miner is incentivized economically to not do this because it would cause everybody to lose faith in the system. Actually obtaining over half the hashrate means a huge investment into hardware, electricity, facilities and employees.
There is basically **0% risk that a miner would deliberately destroy the system it is so heavily invested in. As soon as word got out that the chain has been reversed trust in the blockchain would plummet, merchants and users would leave.
Even IF the >50% miner reverse the blockchain you can keep broadcasting your transaction as much as you want and it would need to keep reversing the blockchain every time it got into a block. This wouldn't go unnoticed for long.
If the >50% miner compose a blacklist of UTXOs that all other miners are expected to follow it would also cause trust in the blockchain to plummet since it goes against the basic idea of bitcoin. There's also no guarantee that every single miner would respect the list.
Just some food for thought. I don't think a >50% miner is likely to come around but even if it happens he would have so much skin in the game that he wouldn't dare causing the price to drop due to people starting to think transactions on the blockchain are no longer reliable by default. ** = I'm saying this is a 0% risk just like anyone would say it's a 0% risk that someone guesses your private key. The chances are just so abysmally small.
Some rational thinking (and numbers) on ASICs/Dedicated Hardware
The current ETH price is bad - we can all clearly see that, having dropped to almost 25% of ATH. So over that period of time miners have lost 75% of their profits + the difficulty increases. The current difficulty HAS started slowing/plateauing. Just zoom in on that etherscan.io graph for Oct-Present and that is obvious. Current difficulty is 265 TH/s or so. That’s about 10 MILLION GPUs @ 26 MH average. The looming fear has been this idea that Dedicated hardware (regardless of ASIC/FPGA/Custom GPUs) are going to completely destroy mining in the near term. I’m here to loudly say that’s a bunch of FUD. Here is my reasoning.
The rumors peg F3 hashrates between 250 and 600 MH for $3000-$6000. $3000-7500 would get you about the same range with commodity GPUs (if you bargain shop and are efficient building rigs). Initial cost is maybe a 10-20% advantage. Those buying used cards get that deal now.
Power usage rumored are 750w or so. Commodity rig with the same GPU power 1200-2400W. So maybe 3x power advantage / operating cost. At $0.10/kW that amounts to $120/mo of savings in the best case, and the 600 MH is currently worth $520 or so at these depressed prices. So you make 23% more.
Next gen GPUs using GDDR6 will almost certainly double hashrates. Without going into the details, it is sufficient to say GDDR6 will double memory bandwidth for all classes of GPUs using it and thus will almost certainly double hashrate for the same power. A major memory change like this hasn’t happened in more than 5 years. Mining has basically never seen it. This should narrow or eliminate any dedicated hardware gap, even if it doesn’t help current card investments... but those are still pretty safe, see #4.
ASIC/Dedicated production is super unlikely to make any significant dent in difficulty for a while. Let’s say the batch size is an extremely aggressive 5,000 units a week, each producing the output of 20 typical GPUs. That’s the same as 100,000 GPUs being introduced a week - but that would only be a 1.1% difficulty increase per week. It would take two years of ASICs for difficulty to double and your $520/mo to drop to $260 - assuming ETH price remained constant. Meanwhile over 4 million GPUs came online between December and January - Thats 10x more new GPU miners per week than Bitmain production could have supported brining online.
You aren’t competing against ASICs. You’re competing against price, which is partially dropping due to all this FUD and uncertainty about ASICs, and you are competing with the millions of get rich quick miners that started, with their GPUs, this spring. For reference bitcoin ASICs, and other not-ASIC resistant algorithms compete with ASIC systems that are 1-100 orders of magnitude faster for cost/power than the GPU miners. That is NOT the case here, we’re looking at 20-30% savings and only till the next gen of GPUs, and this is why ETH has met its project goal of being ASIC resistant - which does not mean it is impossible to build dedicated hardware to mine ETH, it simply means that such hardware won’t change the landscape. Bitcoin was also much smaller than ETH in terms of number of GPUs mining when ASICs were introduced, which is why a relatively low volume of ASIC production that were orders of magnitude better than GPUs resulted in such a disruption to Bitcoin mining. The same holds true of the much smaller coins that were being dual mined. In summary - you are losing profits because of FUD and market shifts lowering price, and that will continue to be why you’re losing money - not ASICs or dedicated hardware. The sooner the community stops running around like chickens with their heads cut off and realigns with focusing on the goals for Ethereum itself, the sooner the situation and price will stabilize. Besides, POS is always coming eventually...
Breakdown of the Mining Pool Ecosystem as it currently stands, and why the smaller pools are better than you think.
Hi NIM nation! The best Proof of Work (PoW) coins have distributed mining networks. Bitcoin has many pools with large amounts of users mining on the network, yet the highest pool hashrate in percentages is BTC.com with only 25% of the hashrate. Exchanges like coins with distributed mining networks like BTC, as it means the risk of a 51% attack on the network by a pool is minimal. Nimiq, not dissimilar to many other young projects, has a very skewed mining distribution. At the time of writing, beeppool currently has over 51% of the network hashrate, and Skypool combines with Beeppool to claim over 80% of the total hashrate in the last 24 hours. Large exchanges generally frown upon centralised networks like this as they feel they aren't as secure as other networks. This post will talk about the different pools available for Nimiq mining, and why the Big 2 aren't necessarily the best bang for your mining buck right now if you're a long term miner. Before that, let's start with the big 2 Beeppool Beeppool is the largest Nimiq mining pool, owned and operated by Blub. They have the best performing mining clients available, and the clients are smart clients capable of verifying transactions so no chance of a 51% attack by Beeppool... but the pool is currently closed due to an effort by Blub to decentralise the network anyway, as he knows it's unhealthy for a coin to have a centralised mining network incase a pool goes down. The fee was raised from 0.7% to 1% on top of this. The pool also only offers manual payouts, which are done whenever Blub gets around to them (usually 1 - 2 times a day). The pool is reliable overall, but being shut off to new users means the hashrate it is at now will most likely stay that way until it is reopened - maybe even drop if users decide to leave to support smaller pools. Skypool Skypool offers a variety of mining clients through it's own closed source propriety mining client. It is not a smart client (capable of verifying transactions and receiving jobs on its own), however pool operator Azard claims that the pool operates on a P2P network so a 51% attack isn't possible. Due to the clients being closed sourced, it is impossible to verify this. They were the first Nimiq pool on the block, so they have a lot of first mover advantage. But in their short history they've been plagued by server issues, making the pool unreliable. They also had "hashrate spoofing attacks", which meant the spoofers received more NIM than they should have. This NIM was never distributed to other miners, which made members of the community question what they did with it. They also have a 1% fee, and payout only once a day. So the two biggest mining pools only offer payouts one - two times a day at a certain time, which is unusual for many pools. They also have the highest fees out of the pools. This is a point that gets lost among miners new and old, so I want to emphasize this before I continue
Pools with higher hashrates DOES NOT mean that you will receive more NIM than pools with lower hashrates. All it means is that you will receive a more consistent payout.
Why is that important? For short term miners, the consistent payout means that they will be more assured to get the NIM they're mining. But for long term miners, it doesn't matter which pool you choose from - if the hashrate is the same, over time your NIM received will be the same regardless if you're on a small pool or large pool... until the fees kick in. With that being said, it's time to look at some of the smaller mining pools that I have tested and trialed, and look at why they're more appealing options to a longer term miner. Sushipool Sushipool has one of the cleanest UIs out of any mining pool for Nimiq. They also have mining clients for any system based off the smart mining client, which means no 51% attacks for Sushipool - plus a webminer for those who don't want to set up a miner on their computer. The Sushipool webminer was also initially used to support the increasingly popular Tamigochi-like game Nimipets, which uses webmining to generate food for their pets. The pool currently has a 1% fee, and unlike the Big 2 pools, it offers automatic payouts for balances over 10 NIM every 3 hours! It also has servers based over the world as well, allowing low ping connections for most users. It has everything the bigger pools have, plus a nice UI on their website and automatic payouts with a 0% fee, and a variety of other small features that make it stand out as one of the better smaller pools. More info at https://sushipool.com Porkypool Porkypool doesn't offer the breadth of clients like Sushipool does, but it's standout feature is that it offers a one line script for Linux users to instantly compile the Linux miner for their system to run on Porkypool servers. There's also the option of web mining if you don't want to install, although this is done on the official Nimiq miner at nimiq.com. They offer servers around the world like Sushipool, and while they don't have a 0% fee deal for the first month, they do offer a competitive 0.8% fee, which is lower than the Big 2. They also offer payouts over 10 NIM automatically every hour! The consistent payouts are attractive to those who needs to sell as they mine to cover costs. More info at https://porkypool.com/ Nimbus Nimbus is one of the newest pools, and as such it is only supporting Linux miners currently with Windows miners on the way. However, in spite of this, Nimbus offers some of the best performance on a Linux miner that can be found, and they offer a very competitive 0% fee for people who wish to mine with them now. They have a registration system similar to Beeppool, however there is automatic approval so no waiting for the admins to add you. They also have a personalised mining tutorial for those who wish to use Google Cloud Compute's free trial to mine up to potentially 10,000 NIM for effectively free once you register. More info at https://nimbus.fun/ Nimiqchain Nimiqchain recently underwent a relaunch, and is now supported by mining clients for every OS as well as a webminer, and the pool is currently operating on a 0% fee! The pool doesn't require registration, and payouts occur every time a block is found for accounts that are over 10 NIM. They have 4 global servers to connect to for low ping, and the new UI design on the website rivals Sushipool for looks. Well worth a look as they offer competitive fees and a wide range of features More info here - https://pool.nimiqchain.info/ There are also a number of other smaller pools operating, such as Philpool with a competitive 0.5% fee and an easy to use linux script to install. The ones I have spoken about are the ones I have tested and feel comfortable talking about. I mine with Beep or Skypool already - why should I switch? Few reasons
The lower fees mean that over time, if you're in for the long haul you will receive more NIM in pocket and less going to the pool runners. Remember, consistent payouts from larger pools only truly affects short term miners, long term miners will find the payouts average out over time... and besides, if your chosen pool ends up getting a higher hashrates, then the payouts will become more consistent as a result! Win win for everyone
It makes the network more appealing for larger exchanges, and outsider looking in. More exchanges/more outsiders wanting in = more adoption, circulation and use of Nimiq. I'll let you figure out why that's important ;)
The automatic payouts and reliability of the timing of the smaller pool payouts means that in the event that something happens to the pool admins for Beep or Sky, or the pool goes down, you will still be receiving most of your hard earned NIM as you can get your payouts more often. Just ask anyone who tried to withdraw NIM from TradeSatoshi over the last week how frustrating/nerve wrecking it is to have NIM in limbo.
To see the pool hashrates in real time, visit https://poolwatch.info/ for more info. Please note that it uses a logarithmic graph so even if they appear close, they might not be as close as they seem :)
A lot has happened in the past few weeks, and this time I actually paid enough attention to write it down. Some general stats (and changes since last time): Mining difficulty: 818,109,875 (0.00%) (next: ~800,107,457 ) (-2.6%) Estimated hashrate: 2.61 Th/s (-37.41%) Current average reward time: 21.88 minutes (+59.35%) Tokens minted: 3,327,300 0xBTC (+1.41%) Token holders: 4556 holders (+1.37%) Total contract operations: 188399 txs (+0.27%) Source: https://0x1d00ffff.github.io/0xBTC-Stats/?page=stats Tokens required to be a top holder (and changes since last time): Top 10: 36197.32435793 0xBTC (0.00%) Top 25: 23614.66689656 0xBTC (+4.04%) Top 50: 14174 0xBTC (0.00%) Top 100: 7159.1234115 0xBTC (+4.35%) Top 200: 2994.7652797 0xBTC (+1.49%) Top 300: 1550 0xBTC (+0.45%) Top 500: 650.02267112 0xBTC (+7.08%) Top 1000: 165.9 0xBTC (+4.86%) Source: https://etherscan.io/token/0xb6ed7644c69416d67b522e20bc294a9a9b405b31#balance Recent events:
The largest happening of the past two weeks is without a doubt Infernal_toast coming public in an interview he gave to Ethex. Not irrelevant is the date on which he did so - the 10th anniversary of the publication of the Bitcoin whitepaper. In addition to the holy image of our Royal Toastiness, there's also some interesting crypto stuff in the video. https://youtu.be/fKMDSc7-AA4
Infernal_toast started a series called "Tokens with Toast", where he looks at the contracts of various ERC20 tokens and comments on them. The second video in the series looks at the contract of Oyster (PRL), which recently screwed over everyone that invested in it. The deployer had not locked himself out of the contract, so he could re-open the ICO and buy freshly-minted PRL tokens at ICO prices, which he promptly proceeded to dump on everyone. Highly educational stuff, recommended watching for everyone. https://youtu.be/iOTI5oslIbU
Infernal_toast is the gift that keeps on giving, and in addition to the previous two things, he has also created a video preview of the LavaWallet. In case you're not in the know, then LavaWallet will allow people to transfer ERC20 tokens without having to hold ETH and by paying for the tx with ERC20 tokens instead, greatly simplifying transfers on the Ethereum network. https://youtu.be/qZwKrAhs8Xc
The FPGA miners have switched their rigs to greener pastures and 0xBTC's hashrate has gone down considerably. 0x1d00ffff's website tracks the hashrate average between adjustments and since we're currently lining up for an adjustment, then the data displayed above is still somewhat skewed by the work that the FPGA's submitted a few hundred blocks ago. The charts he provides on his site are far more accurate if you're more interested in the current situation (https://0x1d00ffff.github.io/0xBTC-Stats/?page=graphs). The actual hashrate is more in the region of 400Gh/s and the blocktime is upwards of 100 minutes. As such, new supply is rapidly drying up and we're probably up for a grind towards a new adjustment just like during the summer.
An idea was formed in the discord to do some paid marketing in the form of an advertorial on CCN. The 9 ETH required were raised in only a few days, with half of the amount donated by a generous whale - shout out to that homie. A community member going by Moonboy3000 (mirin' the name), who's a professional writer, volunteered to write the article and it'll hopefully be published early next week. The plan is to coincide the release of the article with press releases to various other news outlets as well as a refreshed version of the 0xBitcoin homepage that GeoffedUP has been working on. You can browse through the discord for the article and see the work-in-progress on the website at https://geoffedup.github.io/0xbitcoin.github.io/.
Mr F wrote a letter to a journalist who's been writing articles about wBTC and the future of ETH-miners after Casper. Given his choice of topics, he should be interested in 0xBitcoin, so we might get some free exposure. No guarantees though, we'll just have to wait and see.
Nic has been running 0xBitcoin ads on Youtube. Specifically, he's been running the "History of Cryptocurrency" video that toast made (https://youtu.be/Xf8W-C9fN5M). What's remarkable is that the video is over 10 minutes in length and over 20% of the people that had it displayed to them watched it to the end. That's probably on account of the fine targeting nic has done on the ads.
This post covers what happened in Decred last month. Let's get down to business and have About section at the end.
Wallet and node software version 1.2.0 has been released. Decrediton wallet highlights: improved startup experience, redesigned overview page, added basic graphs to visualize statistics and an export to CSV (helpful for tax reporting). dcrd node software highlights: significantly faster startup and compact filters to support light clients. See full release notes and downloads here, for Decrediton use 1.2.1 bugfix release. The release process has been improved. Instead of announcing a release date and trying to meet it, a Release Candidate 1 (RC1) will now be posted. After it has been tested an bugfixed with the help of the community, a second candidate (RC2) will be released. This is repeated until an RC version with no apparent bugs becomes the final release. The new process removes a ton of pressure from developers and users and gives more time for testing. As our primary consumer-facing product, Decrediton, is growing in features and complexity, more testing will be required for new releases. Politeia is "Getting close to a public beta of voting" (slack). Decred plugin merged, paywall and voting are in the testing stage. Ticket voting works on testnet via CLI. Trezor support got closer as Decred patch was merged. Please note this is only firmware support, to be usable it also needs wallet integration. WooCommerce Decred plugin alpha version is ready for testing. Decred.org received a new sleek exchanges page. The contributors page has been updated to add 10 new faces. Some of them are new to the project but others have been contributing for a while. Dev activity stats for April: 152 active PRs, 125 commits, 21,656 added and 10,288 deleted lines spread across 7 repositories done by 2-7 developers per repository. (chart)
Hashrate: April started at 2.0-2.7 PH/s range and seen a general increase with some big fluctuations between lows at 2.2 and new all time high above 5.2 PH/s. Nodes: there are 200 public listening and 500 normal nodes per dcred.eu as of May 1. 169 nodes already upgraded to version 1.2.0. Some 30 nodes were observed to be testing Release Candidate versions before the final release. Ticket price 30-day average has seen a steady rise to 87.5 DCR. Stake participation is solid 46.1% with 3.53 million DCR as of May 1.
Updates from Obelisk's Taek:
We got results back. They are more or less on line with the simulations I didn't realize this, but we don't get the real chips back for 3 more weeks. The ones we've been testing are hacked together into a DIP package (they are BGA chips) that really screws up the results There's a decent chance that the full bga chips perform better For the time being though, we're pretty much on track for the hashrates estimated on the website (slack, Apr 12)
And regarding the June delivery date:
We're still on track for batch 1. We've ordered most of the parts we'll need, including the chips. We've got working chips, we've got test boards, test units, test everything. We've signed manufacturers to produce everything. Obelisk is going strong. (reddit, Apr 23)
We are thankful for his updates in our #pow-mining channel and hope other ASIC manufacturers will also join. Fellow Sia miners are discussing the design of Obelisk SC1 case. Halong: B29 units are shipping. The amount of units in first batch was estimated 450-600 by our community member. Review of DragonMint B29 published, people are discussing shipping and running the miners. By surprise, Innosilicon announced the sale of D9 DecredMaster ASIC miner with specs identical to Halong B29 while being much cheaper ($6800 Inno vs $10499 Halong). Expected shipping date of the first batch is April 28-30. The company is active on their bitcointalk thread, also see our reddit. Just 9 days later Innosilicon announced second batch with delivery on May 7-11 and same price of $6800. (reddit)
Decred's Brazilian community made good progress with integrations this month.
emiliomann: On April 2nd @Rhama will launch the first BR exchange of altcoins with fiat market and totally within the laws of the Brazilian government. Decred will have the two markets DCBTC and DCBRL. It’s very difficult to fulfill all the legal requirements and get authorization to work with FIAT here.
The exchange turned out to be Profitfy. Profity is innovating by using dcrtime for their blockchain ID login via Original My. Great to see this deeper engagement with the tools that Decred provides, and not a surprise that it comes from @Rhama, who has been a community member since day one. This seems to have spurred another exchange, Braziliex, to bring forward their launch of DCBRL and DCBTC pairs, coming just 2 hours after Profitfy launched. Not stopping there,
viniciusfrias: We're excited to announce PagueCripto.com, a Brazilian crypto-to-fiat payment gateway which accepts Decred among other cryptocurrencies for Brazilians to pay daily bills, such as credit cards, energy, rent, etc, and also to make local bank transfers. Our service is both a web platform and an Android app, and as our community is relevant in Brazil, we are offering a discount coupon (50%) in service fees using DCR until May 14, 2018. Check it out at paguecripto.com and in Google Play Store. (slack)
Moving to other countries, good news from Canada:
michae2xl: Decred is now available on @ezBtcCanada, an exchange with DCCAD trading pair. From Toronto – ezbtc.ca
Eventually we hope to offer the pair in GBP and YEN as well
changenow.io, a non-custodian exchange for fast conversions, added DCR. You can see all exchanges known to support Decred in a spreadsheet maintained by snr01. Many of them are missing from coinmarketcap.
RAurelius: I think that a law firm accepting Decred is a worthy distinction from other previously publicized companies that accept Decred for typical consumer products. Legal services are severely lacking in the Crypto-sphere, so the publicity is good for everyone in this arena.
Great to see business owners reaching us directly in chat. VotoLegal is migrating from Ethereum to Decred blockchain:
emiliomann: VotoLegal, a Brazilian project that uses blockchain technology to allow election campaign funding to be transparent and that all transactions conducted are tracked and made available to the citizens, now uses dcrtime and Decred blockchain. https://twitter.com/decred_bstatus/986610826051276800 (slack)
YBF Ventures and Decred announced partnership in building a blockchain-focused development and business hub in Australia.
With the YBF Ventures partnership, Decred hopes to grow their Australian contractor network and scale their operations throughout the Asia-Pacific region. (btcmanager.com) We specifically chose Decred for a more robust corporate partnership, and it is the first time that a decentralised autonomous organisation is partnering with a ‘traditional’ organisation in such a capacity. (ybfventures.com)
Dustorf joined on the marketing front and is conducting a brand discovery analysis:
Decred is soliciting the input of our user community. In order to better understand you, what you think of Decred, and where you would like it to focus its efforts, we've come up with a short (4 minute) survey. Your input of all varieties is most appreciated https://www.surveymonkey.com/2LHK3FV
April targeted advertising report released (previous March report here). Reach @timhebel for full version. The iconic "Not Overly Scammy" t-shirt by cryptograffiti is available for purchase. For those wondering, the meme originates from @fluffypony. Some hilarious promos by @jackliv3r: onetwothree.
Community event at YBF Ventures in Australia. Meetup in Wroclaw, Poland. BBQ with @scalarcapital team in Austin, USA. Blockchain Expo in London, UK. Decred was well represented at this large-scale industry event. Project Lead Jake took part in several interview and the Decred stand manned by community members was flooded with inquisitive visitors. (video, photo 123) First Decred meetup in Hangzhou, China. (slack) Business of Blockchain at MIT Media Lab in Cambridge, USA. Presentation: Blockchain Sovereignty and Blockchain Integration for Businesses by Jake Yocom-Piatt. (event, reddit, photo 123) Cambridge Blockchain Meetup in Cambridge, USA. Talk: Cutting the Head off the Snake by Jake Yocom-Piatt. (event, photo 123) Upcoming events:
Madison Blockchain Meetup in Madison, USA on May 21
Second episode of Lightning Network educational series is out, exploring topics such as payment channels, onion routing, centralization risk, and challenges that still lie ahead. (youtube) A user’s perspective and introduction to blockchain governance (Richard Red) The Importance of Governance: Analyzing the Aftermath of the Monero Hard Fork by Noah Pierau (btcmanager.com) The Crypto Show w/ Marco from Decred (youtube) Interview with Jake at @Blockchain_Expo by Crypto Coin Growth (youtube) Interview with Jake at @Blockchain_Expo by Cryptocurrency Academy (youtube) Alternative Blockchain Governance Systems With Jake & Kyle From Decred at @Blockchain_Expo by Crypto Disrupt (youtube) Decred Looks Ahead: An Interview with Project Lead Jake Yocom-Piatt (Exclusive) (sludgefeed.com) How Complex Bitcoin Politics Led to the Creation of Decred (btcmanager.com) Interview with Decred’s Project Lead Jake Yocom-Piatt on Crypto Ad Bans and Market Volatility (cryptoslate.com) Decred’s Jonathan Zeppettini: The Industry Is Going To Be Displacing Wall Street (blocktribune.com) On Chain VS. Off Chain Governance: The Ins And Outs (coinjournal.net) Decred: On true decentralisation, Bitcoin communities, and avoiding the ICO route [Video] (blockchaintechnology-news.com) Marco in shitcoin talk episode 54 (youtube)
Reddit highlights: A debate on Decred protocol security and attack cost, a comparison of expected and actual block production times, a write-up on distribution of powers and how Monero could benefit from a PoS governance layer, twoother threads on ASIC resistance, and one discussing different types of decentralization. Very thoughtful discussion on whether it is appropriate to use half naked photos in marketing, followed by meta-discussion how to handle very polarizing issues and unwanted contributions to the marketing efforts of a decentralized project. (slack, continued) A new #governance channel was created to discuss governance in Decred and other projects. politeia subreddit was recovered for Decred community. Thanks to Tivra for filing the request. Politeia can bring a lot of value outside Decred so it well deserves its own sub. A new Slack invite page has been setup and onboarded 40 people in 48 hours. Decred StackExchange site proposal was closed due to inactivity in a 7 day period, according to Area 51 rules.
In April Decred showed a confident recovery after previous months. DCUSD moved from below $40 to nearly $90 and the more liquid DCBTC from 0.0058 to 0.0093. OOOBTC showed unexpectedly huge DCR trading volume of $19 m on April 10 (reddit), it went back to normal 2 weeks later. On April 25 a wild rush took the price from 0.00777 to 0.0177 BTC in under 30 minutes on Poloniex, setting a new USD all time high of ~$165 ($141 world average). Prices on other exchanges followed to a lesser degree. Possible causes were discussed on reddit. Talking about all time highs, an indicator tracking difference between ATH and current price shows Decred is competitive at retaining USD value.
Bittrex finally opened registrations again. ASIC debates are raging after Bitmain stealth-launched ASICs for Sia, Monero and Ethereum. Most opinions reflect on whether and how to resist ASICs, but some are recognizing the Decred way, like this excellent piece. The importance of governance is gaining recognition as well. One notable example is Mike Hearn's AMA where it was a hot topic.
About This Issue
This project was motivated by the desire to expose just how much is happening in Decred and save the time for people unable to actively follow our channels. It aims to cover all relevant developments with a short description and links to read further. It shows the depth of the project and the involvement of the community. We also plan to launch a newsletter and consider a shorter version if there is such a demand. This is the first issue and feedback is welcome to discover what is best for our readers. Please join our Slack and write us on #writers_room or comment directly on GitHub. Any help is welcome too. Credits (Slack names, alphabetical order): bee, jazzah, Richard-Red, snr01 and vj.
Bitcoin Vault price today is $406.41 with a 24-hour trading volume of $25,640,044. BTCV price is up 1.4% in the last 24 hours. It has a circulating supply of 0 coins and a max supply of 21 Million coins. BKEX is the current most active market trading it. Bitcoin was the first cryptocurrency to successfully record transactions on a secure, decentralized blockchain-based network. Launched in early 2009 by its pseudonymous creator Satoshi Nakamoto In Bitcoin Core (BTC) proof of work, miners use the transactions of a block and other special identifying data as input to the SHA-256 hash function. To "mine" a block, miners must discover a block that hashes to a digest with a certain number of leading zeros. The output is random and unpredictable, so the hash calculation must be performed Bitcoin Cash (BCH) Hashrate Buy Bitcoin. Purchase Bitcoin using a credit card or with your linked bank account via an online exchange. Learn More. Use Bitcoin Cash (BCH) Send real money quickly to anywhere in the world, basically for free. Learn More. Play Games with Bitcoin Cash (BCH) Mining hashrate is a key security metric. The more hashing (computing) power in the network, the greater its security and its overall resistance to attack. Although Bitcoin’s exact hashing power is unknown, it is possible to estimate it from the number of blocks being mined and the current block difficulty.
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